Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 16, pp 15767–15778 | Cite as

Metals and metalloids in traditional medicines (Ayurvedic medicines, nutraceuticals and traditional Chinese medicines)

  • Eva T. GyamfiEmail author
Review Article
  • 345 Downloads

Abstract

Traditional medicine (TM) including Ayurvedic medicines, traditional Chinese medicines and nutraceuticals are popular across the globe as dietary supplements and traditional and alternative medicines. Health risks from these remedies continue to present serious concerns, with occurrences of poisoning by metals and metalloids present at concentrations above acceptable regulatory standards. This review overviews the prevalence of TM use, cases of metal and metalloid poisoning following TM consumption, and forms of TM contamination and adulteration. The review summarises regulations by the World Health Organization (WHO) and other relevant bodies. Finally, the review recommends how to protect consumers.

Keywords

Traditional medicine Metals and metalloids Health risk Acceptable standards World Health Organization (WHO) 

Notes

Funding information

The author received financial support from Macquarie University through an International Macquarie Research Training Program Scholarship (iMQRTP) and the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission for a study leave grant.

Supplementary material

11356_2019_5023_MOESM1_ESM.docx (130 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 129 kb)

References

  1. Abba D, Inabo HL, Yakubu SE, Olonitola OS (2009) Contamination of herbal medicinal products marketed in Kaduna metropolis with selected pathogenic bacteria. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 6(1):70–77Google Scholar
  2. Abou-Arab K, Kawther MS, Tantawy EL, Badeaa RI, Khariya N (1999) Quantity estimation of some contaminants in commonly used medicinal plants in the Egyptian market. Food Chem 67:357–363Google Scholar
  3. Agbabiaka TB, Pittler MH, Wider B, Ernst E (2009) Serenoa repens (saw palmetto): a systematic review of adverse events. Drug Saf 32(8):637–647Google Scholar
  4. Al Faraj S (2005) Antagonism of the anticoagulant effect of warfarin caused by the use of Commiphora molmol as a herbal medication: a case report. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 99(2):219–220Google Scholar
  5. Almela C, Algora S, Benito V, Clemente MJ, Devesa V, Suner MA, Montoro R (2002) Heavy metal, total arsenic, and inorganic arsenic contents of algae food products. J Agric Food Chem 50(4):918–923Google Scholar
  6. Alsanad SM, Williamson EM, Howard RL (2014) Cancer patients at risk of herb/food supplement–drug interactions: a systematic review. Phytother Res 28(12):1749–1755Google Scholar
  7. Amster E, Tiwary A, Schenker MB (2007) Case report: potential arsenic toxicosis secondary to herbal kelp supplement. Environ Health Perspect 115(4):606–608Google Scholar
  8. Araujo J, Beelen A, Lewis L, Robinson G, DeLaurier C, Carbajal M, Kales S (2004) Lead poisoning associated with Ayurvedic medications-five states, 2000–2003. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 53(26):582–584Google Scholar
  9. Aslam M, Davis S, Healy M (1979) Heavy metals in some Asian medicines and cosmetics. Public Health 93(5):274–284Google Scholar
  10. ASTDR (2012) Toxicological profile for cadmium. Available at http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp5. Accessed 2Apr18.
  11. Au A, Ko R, Boo F, Hsu R, Perez G, Yang Z (2000) Screening methods for drugs and heavy metals in Chinese patent medicines. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 65(1):112–119Google Scholar
  12. Auyeung TW, Chang KK, To CH, Mak A, Szeto ML (2002) Three patients with lead poisoning following use of a Chinese herbal pill. Hong Kong medical journal= Xianggang yi xue za zhi 8(1):60–62Google Scholar
  13. Aziz N, Gilani A, Rindh M (2002) Kushta(s): unique herbo-mineral preparations used in South Asian traditional medicine. Med Hypotheses 59(4):468–472Google Scholar
  14. Bagchi D (2006) Nutraceuticals and functional foods regulations in the United States and around the world. Toxicology 221(1):1–3Google Scholar
  15. Bajaj S, Vohora SB (2000) Anti-cataleptic, anti-anxiety and anti-depressant activity of gold preparations used in Indian system of medicine. Indian J Pharm 32(6):339–346Google Scholar
  16. Barton AL, McLean B (2013) An unusual case of peripheral neuropathy possibly due to arsenic toxicity secondary to excessive intake of dietary supplements. Ann Clin Biochem 50(5):496–500Google Scholar
  17. Bateman J, Chapman RD, Simpson D (1998) Possible toxicity of herbal remedies. Scott Med J 43(1):7–15Google Scholar
  18. Bayly G, Braithwaite R, Sheehan T, Dyer N, Grimley C, Ferner R (1995) Lead poisoning from Asian traditional remedies in the West Midlands-report of a series of five cases. Hum Exp Toxicol 14(1):24–28Google Scholar
  19. Beijnen JH, Schellens JH (2004) Drug interactions in oncology. The Lancet Oncology 5(8):489–496Google Scholar
  20. Bensoussan A, Myers SP (1996) Towards a safer choice: the practice of traditional Chinese medicine in Australia. Faculty of Health, University of Western Sydney Macarthur, Campbelltown, NSWGoogle Scholar
  21. Bhattacharya P, Frisbie S, Smith E, Naidu R, Jacks G, Sarkar B (2002) Arsenic in the environment: a global perspective. Handbook of heavy metals in the environment. Marcell Dekker Inc., New York, pp 147–215Google Scholar
  22. Biswas JK, Rai M, Mondal M, Ingle AP (2018) The flop side of using heavy metal (loids) s in the traditional medicine: toxic insults and injury to human health. In Biomedical Applications of Metals Springer, Cham: 257–276Google Scholar
  23. Bolan S, Kunhikrishnanc A, Seshadria B, Choppala G, Naidu R, Bolan NS, Ok YS, Zhang M, Li C-G, Li F, Noller B, Kirkham MB (2017) Sources, distribution, bioavailability, toxicity, and risk assessment of heavy metal (loid) s in complementary medicines. Environ Int 108:103–118Google Scholar
  24. Bolan S, Naidu R, Kunhikrishnan A, Seshadri B, Ok YS, Palanisami T, Clark I (2016) Speciation and bioavailability of lead in complementary medicines. Sci Total Environ 539:304–312Google Scholar
  25. Brower V (1998) Nutraceuticals: poised for a healthy slice of the healthcare market? Nat Biotechnol 16:728–731Google Scholar
  26. Cassileth BR, Lucarelli CD (2003) Herb-drug interactions in oncology. Peoples Medical Publishing House Limited-United States of America, Shelton, 480 ppGoogle Scholar
  27. Chan K (2003) Some aspects of toxic contaminants in herbal medicines. Chemosphere 52(9):1361–1371Google Scholar
  28. Chan TY, Critchley JA (1996) Usage and adverse effects of Chinese herbal medicines. Hum Exp Toxicol 15(1):5–12Google Scholar
  29. Chan H, Yeh YY, Billmeier GJ, Evans WE, Chan H (1977) Lead poisoning from ingestion of Chinese herbal medicine. Clin Toxicol 10(3):273–281Google Scholar
  30. Chopra A, Doiphode V (2002) Ayurvedic medicine. Core concept, therapeutic principles and current relevance. Med Clin N Am 86:75–89Google Scholar
  31. Coon JT, Pittler M, Ernst E (2003) Herb-drug interactions: a survey of leading pharmaceutical/herbal companies. Arch Intern Med 163(11):1371Google Scholar
  32. Cooper EL (2005) CAM, eCAM, bioprospecting: the 21st-century pyramid. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2(2):125–128Google Scholar
  33. Cooper K, Noller B, Connell D, Yu J, Sadler R, Olszowy H, Golding G, Tinggi U, Moore MR, Myers S (2007) Public health risks from heavy metals and metalloids present in traditional Chinese medicines. J Toxic Environ Health A 70:1694–1699Google Scholar
  34. Coppens P, da Silva MF, Pettman S (2006) European regulations on nutraceuticals, dietary supplements and functional foods: a framework based on safety. Toxicology 221:9–74Google Scholar
  35. Dargan PI, Gawarammana IB, Archer JR, House IM, Shaw D, Wood D (2008) Heavy metal poisoning from Ayurvedic traditional medicines: an emerging problem? Int J Environ Health 2(3–4):463–474Google Scholar
  36. De Smet PAGM (2004) Health risks of herbal remedies: an update. Clin Pharmacol Ther 76(1):1–17Google Scholar
  37. DeFelice SL (1992) Nutraceuticals: opportunities in an emerging market. Scrip Magazine, 9. Available at www.fimdefelice.org/p2463.html. Accessed 11 February 2019
  38. Destro MWB, Speranzini MB, Cavalheiro Filho C, Destro T, Destro C (2005) Bilateral haematoma after rhytidoplasty and blepharoplasty following chronic use of Ginkgo biloba. Br J Plast Surg 58(1):100–101Google Scholar
  39. Devla MN, Acharya SR, Acharya NS, Kumar V (2011) Dietary supplements: a legal status in India and in foreign countries. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 3(3):7–12Google Scholar
  40. Dolan G, Jones AP, Blumsohn A, Reilly JT, Brown MJ (1991) Lead poisoning due to Asian ethnic treatment for impotence. J R Soc Med 84(10):630–631Google Scholar
  41. DSHEA (Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act). 1994. Public Law No. 103–417, 108 Stat. 4325, 21 U.S.CGoogle Scholar
  42. Eisenberg DM, Davis RB, Ettner SL, Appel S, Wilkey S, Van Rompay M, Kessler RC (1998) Trends in alternative medicine use in the United States, 1990–1997: results of a follow-up national survey. J Am Med Assoc 280(18):1569–1575Google Scholar
  43. El Sheikha AF (2017) Medicinal plants: ethno-uses to biotechnology era. In: Malik S (ed) Biotechnology and production of anti-cancer compounds. Springer, ChamGoogle Scholar
  44. Ernst E (2002) Heavy metals in traditional Indian remedies. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 57(12):891–896Google Scholar
  45. Ernst E, Coon JT (2001) Heavy metals in traditional Chinese medicines: a systematic review. Clin Pharmacol Ther 70(6):497–504Google Scholar
  46. Espinoza EO, Mann MJ, Bleasdell B (1995) Arsenic and mercury in traditional Chinese herbal balls. N Engl J Med 333(12):803–804Google Scholar
  47. FAO/WHO (2010) Expert Committee on Food Additives. Summary report of the seventy-second meeting of JECFA, 16th–26th February 2010. JECFA/72/SC, 8–10Google Scholar
  48. Fewtrell L, Kaufmann R, Prüss-Üstün A (2003) Lead: assessing the environmental burden of disease at national and local levels. Geneva, World Health Organization. Environmental burden of disease series, no.2, 73 pp.Google Scholar
  49. Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) (2016) Food safety and standards (health supplements, nutraceuticals, food for special dietary use, food for special medical purpose, functional food and novel food) regulations, 2016Google Scholar
  50. Gair R (2008) Heavy metal poisoning from Ayurvedic medicines. B C Med J 50(2):105Google Scholar
  51. Garrett GR (2010) Natural sources of metals to the environment. Hum Ecol Risk Assess: Int J 6(6):945–963Google Scholar
  52. Genuis SJ, Schwalfenberg G, Siy AKJ, Rodushkin I (2012) Toxic element contamination of natural health products and pharmaceutical preparations. PLoS One 7(11):e49676Google Scholar
  53. Gershwin ME, Borchers AT, Keen CL, Hendler S, Hagie F, Greenwood MRC (2010) Public safety and dietary supplementation. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1190(1):104–117Google Scholar
  54. Ghodke Y, Joshi K, Patwardhan B (2011) Traditional medicine to modern pharmacogenomics: Ayurveda Prakriti type and CYP2C19 gene polymorphism associated with the metabolic variability. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med: eCAM 2011:249528Google Scholar
  55. Giacomino A, Abollino O, Malandrino M, Karthik M, Murugesan V (2011) Determination and assessment of the contents of essential and potentially toxic elements in Ayurvedic medicine formulations by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Microchem J 99(1):2–6Google Scholar
  56. Gogtay NJ, Bhatt HA, Dalvi SS, Kshirsagar NA (2002) The use and safety of non-allopathic Indian medicines. Drug Saf 25(14):1005–1019Google Scholar
  57. Graham RE, Ahn AC, Davis RB, O'Connor BB, Eisenberg DM, Phillips RS (2005) Use of complementary and alternative medical therapies among racial and ethnic minority adults: results from the 2002 National Health Interview Survey. J Natl Med Assoc 97(4):535–645Google Scholar
  58. Grimstein M, Huang SM (2018) A regulatory science viewpoint on botanical-drug interactions. J Food Drug Anal 26(2):12–25Google Scholar
  59. Gunturu KS, Nagarajan P, McPhedran P, Goodman TR, Hodsdon ME, Strout MP (2011) Ayurvedic herbal medicine and lead poisoning. J Haematol Oncol 4(1):51–57Google Scholar
  60. Gupta N, Goswami B, Singh N, Koner BC, Garg R (2011) Lead poisoning associated with Ayurvedic drug presenting as intestinal obstruction: a case report. Clin Chim Acta 412(1–2):213–214Google Scholar
  61. Hathcock JN (1997) Vitamins and minerals: efficacy and safety. Am J Clin Nutr 66(2):427–437Google Scholar
  62. Health Canada (2016) About natural health product regulations in Canada - Health Canada. Available at http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/prodnatur/about-apropos/index-eng.php. Accessed 2 May 2018
  63. Heck AM, Dewitt BA, Lukes AL (2000) Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin. Am J Health Syst Pharm 57(13):1221–1227Google Scholar
  64. Hochholzer K, Li W, Gunja N (2014) A heavy burden: remaining vigilant with herbal remedies. Aust Fam Physician 43(8):545–546Google Scholar
  65. Hu XY, Lorenc A, Kemper K, Liu JP, Adams J, Robinson N (2015) Defining integrative medicine in narrative and systematic reviews: a suggested checklist for reporting. Eur J Integrative Med 7(1):76–84Google Scholar
  66. Huang RJ, Zhuang ZX, Tai Y, Huang RF, Wang XR, Lee FS (2006) Direct analysis of mercury in traditional Chinese medicines using thermolysis coupled with on-line atomic absorption spectrometry. Talanta 68(3):728–734Google Scholar
  67. International Agency for Research on Cancer (1990) Chromium. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 49:49–256Google Scholar
  68. International Agency for Research on Cancer (1993) Cadmium and certain cadmium compounds. In: IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man. Beryllium, cadmium, mercury and exposures in the glass manufacturing industry IARC monographs, Vol. 58. Lyon, France: World Health Organization, pp. 148–161Google Scholar
  69. International Agency for Research on Cancer (2006) Inorganic and organic lead compounds. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 87:1–471Google Scholar
  70. International Atomic Energy Agency (1986) Derived intervention levels for application in controlling radiation doses to the public in the event of a nuclear emergency: principles, procedures and data. Vienna; Safety Series No. 81, 122 pp.Google Scholar
  71. International Programme on Chemical Safety (1995). Inorganic lead. Geneva, World Health Organization, International Programme on Chemical Safety (Environmental Health Criteria 165). Available at http://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc165.htm. Accessed 07Sep2017
  72. International Programme on Chemical Safety (1999) Arsenic. Geneva, WHO (Poison Information Monograph No. G042)Google Scholar
  73. Izzo AA (2005) Herb-drug interactions: an overview of the clinical evidence. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 19(1):1–16Google Scholar
  74. Izzo AA, Ernst E (2001) Interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs. Drugs 61(15):2163–2175Google Scholar
  75. Javed F, Golagani A, Sharp H (2008) Potential effects of herbal medicines and nutritional supplements on coagulation in ENT practice. J Laryngol Otol 122(2):116–119Google Scholar
  76. Jung MC (2008) Heavy metal concentrations in soils and factors affecting metal uptake by plants in the vicinity of a Korean Cu-W mine. Sensors 8(4):2413–2423Google Scholar
  77. Jung M, Park M, Lee HC, Kang YH, Kang ES, Kim SK (2006) Antidiabetic agents from medicinal plants. Curr Med Chem 13(10):1203–1218Google Scholar
  78. Kabata-Pendias A (2001) Trace elements in soils and plants. CRC Press Inc., Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  79. Kales SN, Christophi CA, Saper RB (2007) Hematopoietic toxicity from lead-containing Ayurvedic medications. Med Sci Monit 13(7):CR295–CR298Google Scholar
  80. Keen R, Deacon A, Delves H, Moreton J, Frost P (1994) Indian herbal remedies for diabetes as a cause of lead poisoning. Postgrad Med J 70(820):113–114Google Scholar
  81. Khan IA, Allgood J, Walker LA, Abourashed EA, Schlenk D, Benson WHO (2001) Determination of heavy metals and pesticides in ginseng products. J AOAC Int 84(3):936–939Google Scholar
  82. Koch I, Moriarty M, House K, Sui J, Cullen WR, Saper RB, Reimer KJ (2011) Bioaccessibility of lead and arsenic in traditional Indian medicines. Sci Total Environ 409(21):4545–4552Google Scholar
  83. Koh HL, Woo SO (2000) Chinese proprietary medicine in Singapore. Drug Saf 23(5):351–362Google Scholar
  84. Kudolo GB, Dorsey S, Blodgett J (2002) Effect of the ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract on platelet aggregation and urinary prostanoid excretion in healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects. Thromb Res 108(2):151–160Google Scholar
  85. Kulhari A, Sheorayan A, Bajar S, Sarkar S, Chaudhury A, Kalia RK (2013) Investigation of heavy metals in frequently utilized medicinal plants collected from environmentally diverse locations of north western India. SpringerPlus 2(1):676Google Scholar
  86. Kumar CS, Moorthi C, Prabhu PC, Jonson BB, Venkatnarayan R (2011) Standardization of anti-arthritic herbo-mineral preparation. Res J Pharm, Biol Chem Sci 2:679–684Google Scholar
  87. Kumar A, Nair A, Reddy A, Garg A (2006) Availability of essential elements in bhasmas: analysis of Ayurvedic metallic preparations by INAA. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 270(1):173–180Google Scholar
  88. Lawson KA, Wright ME, Subar A, Mouw T, Hollenbeck A, Schatzkin A, Leitzmann MF (2007) Multivitamin use and risk of prostate cancer in the National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study. J Natl Cancer Inst 99(10):754–764Google Scholar
  89. Leite PM, Martins MAP, Castilho RO (2016) Review on mechanisms and interactions in concomitant use of herbs and warfarin therapy. Biomed Pharmacother 83:14–21Google Scholar
  90. Li AM, Chan MH, Leung T, Cheung RC, Lam CW, Fok T (2000) Mercury intoxication presenting with tics. Arch Dis Child 83(2):174–175Google Scholar
  91. Lightfoote J, Blair HJ, Cohen JR (1977) Lead intoxication in an adult caused by Chinese herbal medication. J Am Med Assoc 238(14):1539–1539Google Scholar
  92. Liu RH (2003) Health benefits of fruit and vegetables are from additive and synergistic combinations of phytochemicals. Am J Clin Nutr 78(3):517S–520SGoogle Scholar
  93. Mandal BK, Suzuki KT (2002) Arsenic round the world: a review. Talanta 58(1):201–235Google Scholar
  94. Markowitz SB, Nunez CM, Klitzman S, Munshi AA, Kim WS, Eisinger J, Landrigan PJ (1994) Lead poisoning due to hai ge fen: the porphyrin content of individual erythrocytes. J Am Med Assoc 271(12):932–934Google Scholar
  95. Martena MJ, Van Der Wielen JC, Rietjens IM, Klerx WN, De Groot HN, Konings EJ (2010) Monitoring of mercury, arsenic, and lead in traditional Asian herbal preparations on the Dutch market and estimation of associated risks. Food Addit Contam 27(2):190–205Google Scholar
  96. Martínez-Domínguez G, Plaza-Bolaños P, Romero-González R, Garrido-Frenich A (2014) Analytical approaches for the determination of pesticide residues in nutraceutical products and related matrices by chromatographic techniques coupled to mass spectrometry. Talanta 118:277–291Google Scholar
  97. McLaughlin MJ, Parker DR, Clarke JM (1999) Metals and micronutrients–food safety issues. Field Crop Res 60(1–2):143–163Google Scholar
  98. Melchart D, Wagner H, Hager S, Saller R, Ernst E (2001) Quality assurance and evaluation of Chinese medicinal drugs in a hospital of traditional Chinese medicine in Germany: a five-year report. Altern Ther Health Med 7:S24Google Scholar
  99. Meseguer E, Taboada R, Sánchez V, Mena MA, Campos V, García de Yébenes J (2002) Life-threatening parkinsonism induced by kava-kava. Mov Disord 17(1):195–196Google Scholar
  100. Mikulski MA, Wichman MD, Simmons DL, Pham AN, Clottey V, Fuortes LJ (2017) Toxic metals in ayurvedic preparations from a public health lead poisoning cluster investigation. Int J Occup Environ Health 23(3):187–192Google Scholar
  101. Miller WH, Schipper HM, Lee JS, Singer J, Waxman S (2002) Mechanisms of action of arsenic trioxide. Cancer Res 62(14):3893–3903Google Scholar
  102. Mitchell-Heggs C, Conway M, Cassar J (1990) Herbal medicine as a cause of combined lead and arsenic poisoning. Hum Exp Toxicol 9(3):195–196Google Scholar
  103. Moreira DDL, Teixeira SS, Monteiro MHD, De-Oliveira ACA, Paumgartten FJ (2014) Traditional use and safety of herbal medicines. Rev Bras 24(2):248–257Google Scholar
  104. Mullins RJ, Heddle R (2002) Adverse reactions associated with echinacea: the Australian experience. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 88(1):42–51Google Scholar
  105. Nahin RL, Barnes PM, Stussman BJ, Bloom B (2009) Costs of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and frequency of visits to CAM practitioners: the United States, 2007. Natl Health Stat Rep 18(18):1–14Google Scholar
  106. Nash KM, Shah ZA (2015) Current perspectives on the beneficial role of Ginkgo biloba in neurological and cerebrovascular disorders. Integrative Medicine Insights 10:1–9Google Scholar
  107. Nouri J, Mahvi AH, Jahed GR, Babaei A (2008) A regional distribution pattern of groundwater heavy metals resulting from agricultural activities. Environ Geol 55:1337–1343Google Scholar
  108. Okigbo RN, Mmeka EC (2006) An appraisal of phytomedicine in Africa. Curr Appl Sci Technol 6(2):83–94Google Scholar
  109. Page RL, Lawrence JD (1999) Potentiation of warfarin by dong quai. Pharmacother: J Hum Pharmacol Drug Ther 19(7):870–876Google Scholar
  110. Palmer ME, Haller C, McKinney PE, Klein-Schwartz W, Tschirgi A, Smolinske SC, Nelson LS (2003) Adverse events associated with dietary supplements: an observational study. Lancet 361(9352):101–106Google Scholar
  111. Pan SY, Litscher G, Gao SH, Zhou SF, Yu ZL, Chen HQ, Tang MK, Sun JN, Ko KM (2014) Historical perspective of traditional indigenous medical practices: the current renaissance and conservation of herbal resources. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2014:1–20Google Scholar
  112. Pharmacopoeia of China (2015) Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China, vol 1. Chemical Industry Press. 2015 ed., BeijingGoogle Scholar
  113. Pip E (1991) Cadmium, copper, and lead in soils and garden produce near a metal smelter at Flin Flon, Manitoba. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 46(5):790–796Google Scholar
  114. Rao MM, Kumar MA (2011) Detection of toxic heavy metals and pesticide residue in herbal plants which are commonly used in the herbal formulations. Environ Monit Assess 181(1–4):267–271Google Scholar
  115. Reimer KJ, Koch I (2012) Metals and metalloids in complementary and alternative medicines. Maturitas 72(4):267–268Google Scholar
  116. Robinson MM, Zhang X (2011) Traditional medicines: global situation, issues and challenges. The world medicines situation, 3rd edn. World Health Organisation, Geneva, pp 1–14Google Scholar
  117. Saito M (2007) Role of FOSHU (food for specified health uses) for a healthier life. Yakugaku zasshi: J Pharm Soc Jpn 127(3):407–416Google Scholar
  118. Saper RB, Phillips RS, Sehgal A, Khouri N, Davis RB, Paquin J, Kales SN (2008) Lead, mercury, and arsenic in US-and Indian-manufactured Ayurvedic medicines sold via the Internet. J Am Med Assoc 300(8):915–923Google Scholar
  119. Sarma H, Deka S, Deka H, Saikia RR (2011) Accumulation of heavy metals in selected medicinal plants. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 214:63–86Google Scholar
  120. Saydah SH, Eberhardt MS (2006) Use of complementary and alternative medicine among adults with chronic diseases: the United States 2002. J Altern Complement Med 12(8):805–812Google Scholar
  121. Shilo S, Hirsch HJ (1986) Iodine-induced hyperthyroidism in a patient with a normal thyroid gland. Postgrad Med J 62(729):661–662Google Scholar
  122. Shimizu T (2003) Health claims and scientific substantiation of functional foods-Japanese system aiming the global standard. Curr Top Nutraceutical Res 1:213–224Google Scholar
  123. Sparreboom A, Cox MC, Acharya MR, Figg WD (2004) Herbal remedies in the United States: potential adverse interactions with anticancer agents. J Clin Oncol 22(12):2489–2503Google Scholar
  124. Stefanovits-Bányai E, Szentmihályi K, Hegedűs A, Koczka N, Váli L, Taba G, Blázovics A (2006) Metal ion and antioxidant alterations in leaves between different sexes of Ginkgo biloba L. Life Sci 78(10):1049–1056Google Scholar
  125. Straif K, Benbrahim-Tallaa L, Baan R, Grosse Y, Secretan B, El Ghissassi F, Cogliano V (2009) A review of human carcinogens-part C: metals, arsenic, dust, and fibres. The Lancet Oncology 10(5):453–454Google Scholar
  126. Sultan S, Jahangir A, Gussak, IB, Kostis JB, JamilTajik A, Jahangir A (2018) Interactions between supplements and medications. Iatrogenicity: causes and consequences of iatrogenesis in cardiovascular medicine, 370–389Google Scholar
  127. Taylor JR, Wilt VM (1999) Probable antagonism of warfarin by green tea. Ann Pharmacother 33(4):426–428Google Scholar
  128. TGA. (2013) Listed complementary medicines | Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA). Available at https://www.tga.gov.au/listed-complementary-medicines. Accessed 2 May 2018
  129. TGA (2018) Australian regulatory guidelines for complementary medicines. Version, 7.2Google Scholar
  130. Thatte UM, Rege NN, Phatak SD, Dahanukar SA (1993) The flip side of Ayurveda. J Postgrad Med 39(4):179–182Google Scholar
  131. Ting A, Chow Y, Tan W (2013) Microbial and heavy metal contamination in commonly consumed traditional Chinese herbal medicines. J Tradit Chin Med 33(1):119–124Google Scholar
  132. Tripathi P, Dwivedi S, Mishra A, Kumar A, Dave R, Srivastava S, Tripathi RD (2012) Arsenic accumulation in native plants of West Bengal, India: prospects for phytoremediation but concerns with the use of medicinal plants. Environ Monit Assess 184(5):2617–2631Google Scholar
  133. USEPA (1998) Support of summary information on the integrated risk information system (IRIS) Washington DC: toxicological review of hexavalent chromium (CAS no 18540-29-9)Google Scholar
  134. Varghese T, Mishal P (2014) Scrutinising the term ‘nutraceutical’- a global regulatory perspective. Nutraceutical Business Review, 1–9. Available at https://www. nutraceuticalbusinessreview.com/news/article_page/Scrutinising_the_term_nutraceutical__a_global_regulatory_perspective/100047. Accessed: 3 May 2017
  135. Vicentini A, Liberatore L, Mastrocola D (2016) Functional foods: trends and development of the global market. Ital J Food Sci 2:338–351Google Scholar
  136. Wadekar MP, Rode CV, Bendale YN, Patil KR, Prabhune AA (2005) Preparation and characterization of a copper-based Indian traditional drug: Tamra bhasma. J Pharm Biomed Anal 39(5):951–955Google Scholar
  137. Walker AF, Marakis G, Morris AP, Robinson PA (2002) Promising hypotensive effect of hawthorn extract: a randomized double-blind pilot study of mild, essential hypertension. Phytother Res 16(1):48–54Google Scholar
  138. Walkiw O, Douglas D (1975) Health food supplements prepared from a kelp-a source of elevated urinary arsenic. Clin Toxicol 8(3):325–331Google Scholar
  139. Wang L, Zhou GB, Liu P, Song J-H, Liang Y, Yan X-J, Xu F, Wang B-S, Mao J-H, Shen Z-X, Chen SJ, Chen Z (2008) Dissection of mechanisms of Chinese medicinal formula Realgar-Indigo naturalis as an effective treatment for promyelocytic leukemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci 105(12):4826–4831Google Scholar
  140. Wegener T (2017) Patterns and trends in the use of herbal products, herbal medicine and herbal medicinal products. Int J Complement Altern Med 9(6):00317Google Scholar
  141. WHO (1988) Derived intervention levels for radionuclides in food: guidelines for application after widespread radioactive contamination resulting from a major radiation accident. Geneva: World Health Organization. Available at http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/40421. Accessed 4Apr18
  142. WHO (2000) General guidelines for methodologies on research and evaluation of traditional medicine. WHO/EDM/TRM/2000.1. Accessed 4April18Google Scholar
  143. WHO (2002) Traditional medicine strategy 2002–2005. World Health Organization, Geneva 74 pp. WHO/EDM/TRM/2002. Accessed 11Mar19Google Scholar
  144. WHO (2003) Traditional medicine. Fifty-sixth world health assembly A56/18. Fact sheet number 134. Geneva: WHO. Accessed 4 April18Google Scholar
  145. WHO (2005) National policy on traditional medicine and regulation of herbal medicines - report of a WHO Global Survey, p. 168Google Scholar
  146. WHO (2007) WHO guidelines for assessing the quality of herbal medicines with reference to contaminants and residues. WHO Press, World Health Organization, Geneva 118 ppGoogle Scholar
  147. WHO (2012) The regional strategy for traditional medicine in the Western Pacific (2011–2020). WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific, Manila 71 ppGoogle Scholar
  148. WHO (2013) WHO traditional medicine strategy: 2014–2023. World Health Organisation, Geneva 76 ppGoogle Scholar
  149. WHO (2017) Guidelines on good herbal processing practices (GHPP). World Health Organisation, Geneva, 60 ppGoogle Scholar
  150. WHO (2018) Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations, fifty-second report: WHO Technical Report Series, No. 1010, 424 pp.Google Scholar
  151. Wong S, Chan H, Teo S (1998) The spectrum of cutaneous and internal malignancies in chronic arsenic toxicity. Singap Med J 39(4):171–173Google Scholar
  152. Xue CC, Zhang AL, Lin V, Da Costa C, Story DF (2007) Complementary and alternative medicine use in Australia: a national population-based survey. J Altern Complement Med 13(6):643–650Google Scholar
  153. Yee SK, Chu SS, Xu YM, Choo PL (2005) Regulatory control of Chinese proprietary medicines in Singapore. Health Policy 71(2):133–149Google Scholar
  154. Yu E, Yeung C (1987) Lead encephalopathy due to herbal medicine. Chin Med J 100(11):915–917Google Scholar
  155. Zeisel SH (1999) Regulation of “nutraceuticals”. Science 285(5435):853–1855Google Scholar
  156. Zhang J, Wider B, Shang H, Li X, Ernst E (2012) Quality of herbal medicines: challenges and solutions. Complement Ther Med 20(1–2):100–106Google Scholar
  157. Ziegler PJ, Nelson JA, Jonnalagadda SS (2003) Use of dietary supplements by elite figure skaters. Int J Sports Nutr Exerc Metab 13(3):266–276Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental SciencesMacquarie UniversitySydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Nuclear Chemistry and Environmental Research Centre, Ghana Atomic Energy CommissionNational Nuclear Research InstituteAccraGhana

Personalised recommendations