The relationship of maternal PCB, toxic, and essential trace element exposure levels with birth weight and head circumference in Chiba, Japan
- 83 Downloads
Maternal exposure to high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and trace elements is an important concern for fetal growth. In our previous study, we showed the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels in maternal serum from the Chiba Study of Mother and Child Health (C-MACH) cohort and their relationships between PCB levels in cord serum with birth weight of newborn. Various reports on the relationship between chemical exposure and birth status have been published; however, studies that analyze the effects of both PCB and metal exposure together in one cohort are still limited. In this study, we aimed to determine the relationship of maternal serum levels of PCBs and toxic and essential trace elements [mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), selenium (Se), and cadmium (Cd)], with birth weight and head circumference, in the C-MACH cohort. The median concentration of total PCBs in maternal serum around 32 gestational weeks (n = 62) was 360 pg g−1 wet wt (41 ng g−1 lipid wt). The levels of Hg, Mn, Se, and Cd in maternal serum were 0.89, 0.84, 100, and 0.024 ng g−1, respectively. In this study, the Bayesian linear model determined the relationships of the birth weight and head circumference with combinations of PCB levels, toxic and essential trace elements, and questionnaire data. We found that PCB concentrations in maternal serum were weakly and negatively related to birth weight, whereas trace elements were not associated with birth weight. Serum PCB and Mn levels were negatively associated with head circumference, whereas other trace elements were not associated with head circumference. These results showed that maternal exposure to PCBs may be related to birth weight and head circumference, while maternal exposure to Mn is related to head circumference, even when adjusted based on the exposure levels of other contaminants, and maternal and fetal characteristics. Therefore, our findings indicate that maternal exposure to PCBs and Mn might be negatively related with birth weight and head circumference.
KeywordsPolychlorinated biphenyls Toxic and essential elements Birth cohort Fetal growth
This study was supported by the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A) (grant numbers: 16H01781) and Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (18 K18199) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). This study was also supported by the Environment Research and Technology Development Fund (5-1652) from the Ministry of the Environment (MoE) of Japan. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Informed consent was obtained from the participants. This study was approved by the Biomedical Research Ethics Committee of the Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University (ID 451: 8 November 2013; ID 849: 27 March 2018).
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
- Amaral JH, Rezende VB, Quintana SM, Gerlach RF, Barbosa F, Tanus-Santos JE (2010) The relationship between blood and serum Lead levels in Peripartum women and their respective umbilical cords. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 107:971–975. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-7843.2010.00616.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Eguchi A, Enomoto T, Suzuki N, Okuno M, Mori C (2017a) Development of simple analytical methods of polychlorinated biphenyls in human serum by gas chromatography negative ion chemical ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry. Acta Chromatogr 29:503–506. https://doi.org/10.1556/1326.2017.00029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Govarts E, Nieuwenhuijsen M, Schoeters G, Ballester F, Bloemen K, de Boer M, Chevrier C, Eggesbø M, Guxens M, Krämer U, Legler J, Martínez D, Palkovicova L, Patelarou E, Ranft U, Rautio A, Petersen MS, Slama R, Stigum H, Toft G, Trnovec T, Vandentorren S, Weihe P, Kuperus NW, Wilhelm M, Wittsiepe J, Bonde JP, OBELIX, ENRIECO (2012) Birth weight and prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE): a meta-analysis within 12 European birth cohorts. Environ Health Perspect 120:162–170. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1103767 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jorissen J (2007) Literature review. Outcomes associated with postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) via breast milk. Adv Neonatal Care 7:230–237. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ANC.0000296630.03798.ba CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lê S, Josse J, Husson F (2008) FactoMineR: an R package for multivariate analysis. J Stat Softw 25(1):1–18Google Scholar
- Leoni V, Fabiani L, Marinelli G, Puccetti G, Tarsitani GF, de Carolis A, Vescia N, Morini A, Aleandri V, Pozzi V, Cappa F, Barbati D (1989) PCB and other organochlorine compounds in blood of women with or without miscarriage: a hypothesis of correlation. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 17:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Longnecker MP, Klebanoff MA, Brock JW, Guo XG (2005) Maternal levels of polychlorinated biphenyls in relation to preterm and small-for-gestational-age birth. Epidemiology 16:641–647. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ede.0000172137.45662.85 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Longnecker MP, Wolff MS, Gladen BC, Brock JW, Grandjean P, Jacobson JL, Korrick SA, Rogan WJ, Weisglas-Kuperus N, Hertz-Picciotto I, Ayotte P, Stewart P, Winneke G, Charles MJ, Jacobson SW, Dewailly E, Boersma ER, Altshul LM, Heinzow B, Pagano JJ, Jensen AA (2003) Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl levels across studies of human neurodevelopment. Environ Health Perspect 111:65–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Miller TA, Zak V, Shrader P, Ravishankar C, Pemberton VL, Newburger JW, Shillingford AJ, Dagincourt N, Cnota JF, Lambert LM, Sananes R, Richmond ME, Hsu DT, Miller SG, Zyblewski SC, Williams RV, Miller TA, Zak V, Shrader P, Ravishankar C, Pemberton VL, Newburger JW, Shillingford AJ, Dagincourt N, Cnota JF, Lambert LM, Sananes R, Richmond ME, Hsu DT, Miller SG, Zyblewski SC, Williams RV (2016) Growth asymmetry, head circumference, and neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants with single ventricles. J Pediatr 168:220–225 e221. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.09.041 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mora AM, van Wendel de Joode B, Mergler D, Córdoba L, Cano C, Quesada R, Smith DR, Menezes-Filho JA, Eskenazi B (2015) Maternal blood and hair manganese concentrations, fetal growth, and length of gestation in the ISA cohort in Costa Rica. Environ Res 136:47–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2014.10.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Papadopoulou E, Caspersen IH, Kvalem HE, Knutsen HK, Duarte-Salles T, Alexander J, Meltzer HM, Kogevinas M, Brantsæter AL, Haugen M (2013) Maternal dietary intake of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls and birth size in the Norwegian mother and child cohort study (MoBa). Environ Int 60:209–216. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2013.08.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- R Core Team (2018) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. http://www.R-project.org/
- Sakurai K, Miyaso H, Eguchi A, Matsuno Y, Yamamoto M, Todaka E, Fukuoka H, Hata A, Mori C, Chiba study of Mother and Children's Health Group (2016) Chiba study of mother and Children's health (C-MACH): cohort study with omics analyses. BMJ Open 6:e010531. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010531 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sasamoto T, Ushio F, Kikutani N, Saitoh Y, Yamaki Y, Hashimoto T, Horii S, Nakagawa JI, Ibe A (2006) Estimation of 1999-2004 dietary daily intake of PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs by a total diet study in metropolitan Tokyo, Japan. Chemosphere 64:634–641. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.10.057 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Stan Development Team (2018) RStan: the R interface to Stan, version 2.17.3. http://mc-stan.org/rstan.html
- Tatsuta N, Kurokawa N, Nakai K, Suzuki K, Iwai-Shimada M, Murata K, Satoh H (2017) Effects of intrauterine exposures to polychlorinated biphenyls, methylmercury, and lead on birth weight in Japanese male and female newborns. Environ Health Prev Med 22:39. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12199-017-0635-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tsuji M, Shibata E, Morokuma S, Tanaka R, Senju A, Araki S, Sanefuji M, Koriyama C, Yamamoto M, Ishihara Y, Kusuhara K, Kawamoto T, Saito H, Kishi R, Yaegashi N, Hashimoto K, Mori C, Ito S, Yamagata Z, Inadera H, Kamijima M, Nakayama T, Iso H, Shima M, Hirooka Y, Suganuma N, Kusuhara K, Katoh T (2018) The association between whole blood concentrations of heavy metals in pregnant women and premature births: the Japan environment and Children's study (JECS). Environ Res 166:562–569. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.06.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tsukino H, Hanaoka T, Sasaki H, Motoyama H, Hiroshima M, Tanaka T, Kabuto M, Turner W, Patterson DG Jr, Needham L, Tsugane S (2006) Fish intake and serum levels of organochlorines among Japanese women. Sci Total Environ 359:90–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2005.04.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar