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Protective effects of garlic extract against hematological alterations, immunosuppression, hepatic oxidative stress, and renal damage induced by cyclophosphamide in rats

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Abstract

Cyclophosphamide is an alkylating agent widely used as anticancer drug, reported to exert cytotoxic effects attributed to oxidative stress. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the protective effect of ethanolic extract of garlic (EEG) against cyclophosphamide (Cyp)-induced hematological disturbance and immunosuppressive and hepatotoxic effects. Forty male Wistar albino rats were randomized into four equal groups: the normal control one, the Cyp-treated group (50 mg/kg BW/IM, once weekly), the EEG-treated group (300 mg/kg BW, orally, daily), and the Cyp & EEG group. All rats received their relevant treatments for four consecutive weeks. This study revealed that Cyp significantly decreased erythrocyte count, hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), and total leukocyte and lymphocyte counts. However, the counts of neutrophils, eosinophils, and toxic neutrophils were elevated. Additionally, hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and levels of liver and renal biomarkers were significantly elevated in the Cyp-treated group. Otherwise, hepatic catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were significantly lower than the control rats. Furthermore, Cyp significantly reduced whole blood respiratory burst activity (NBT), serum lysozyme and bactericidal activities, interlukin-12 (IL-12), and interferon-γ. In contrast, the levels of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interlukin-1β (IL-1β) were elevated. Additionally, Cyp induced hepatic and renal histopathological alterations. Data in the present study demonstrated that EEG has immunomodulatory and antioxidant effects and has the ability to diminish the alterations induced by Cyp.

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Acknowledgments

The authors are deeply grateful to Professor Dr. Mohamed El-Boshy, Laboratory Medicine Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Science, Umm Al-Qura University, PB 7296, Makkah 21955, Saudi Arabia, for his kind help in statistical analysis.

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Correspondence to Fatma M. Abdelhamid.

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El-Sebaey, A.M., Abdelhamid, F.M. & Abdalla, O.A. Protective effects of garlic extract against hematological alterations, immunosuppression, hepatic oxidative stress, and renal damage induced by cyclophosphamide in rats. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26, 15559–15572 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-04993-7

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