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Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 15, pp 15559–15572 | Cite as

Protective effects of garlic extract against hematological alterations, immunosuppression, hepatic oxidative stress, and renal damage induced by cyclophosphamide in rats

  • Ahmed M. El-Sebaey
  • Fatma M. AbdelhamidEmail author
  • Osama A. Abdalla
Research Article
  • 118 Downloads

Abstract

Cyclophosphamide is an alkylating agent widely used as anticancer drug, reported to exert cytotoxic effects attributed to oxidative stress. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the protective effect of ethanolic extract of garlic (EEG) against cyclophosphamide (Cyp)-induced hematological disturbance and immunosuppressive and hepatotoxic effects. Forty male Wistar albino rats were randomized into four equal groups: the normal control one, the Cyp-treated group (50 mg/kg BW/IM, once weekly), the EEG-treated group (300 mg/kg BW, orally, daily), and the Cyp & EEG group. All rats received their relevant treatments for four consecutive weeks. This study revealed that Cyp significantly decreased erythrocyte count, hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), and total leukocyte and lymphocyte counts. However, the counts of neutrophils, eosinophils, and toxic neutrophils were elevated. Additionally, hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and levels of liver and renal biomarkers were significantly elevated in the Cyp-treated group. Otherwise, hepatic catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were significantly lower than the control rats. Furthermore, Cyp significantly reduced whole blood respiratory burst activity (NBT), serum lysozyme and bactericidal activities, interlukin-12 (IL-12), and interferon-γ. In contrast, the levels of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interlukin-1β (IL-1β) were elevated. Additionally, Cyp induced hepatic and renal histopathological alterations. Data in the present study demonstrated that EEG has immunomodulatory and antioxidant effects and has the ability to diminish the alterations induced by Cyp.

Keywords

Ethanolic extract of garlic Cyclophosphamide Hematological alterations Immunosuppression Hepatic oxidative stress Renal damage 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are deeply grateful to Professor Dr. Mohamed El-Boshy, Laboratory Medicine Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Science, Umm Al-Qura University, PB 7296, Makkah 21955, Saudi Arabia, for his kind help in statistical analysis.

Compliance with ethical standards

Animals were handled in accordance with animal welfare and under ethical protocols by the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineMansoura UniversityMansouraEgypt
  2. 2.Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineSuez Canal UniversityIsmailiaEgypt

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