The trace metal pollution in the environment is a highly concerned issue in these days. One of the important causes of trace metal pollution is the exhaust gases released from the vehicles on the roads. These dangerous gases pose life-threatening effects on the forage plants grown along the roadside as these plants are at direct risk to these trace metals. The aims of the present study were to determine the cobalt (Co) concentrations in soil, forages, and blood plasma of the buffaloes and to evaluate the Co deficiencies and toxicities in these samples. All samples were collected from six sites (Faisalabad roadside, Bhalwal roadside, Shaheenabad roadside, Mateela roadside, 50 Chak roadside, and Dera Saudi-control) of Sargodha city. The Co concentrations in these samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AA-6300 Shimadzu Japan). In soil samples, Co level ranged from 1.958 to 3.457 mg/kg in the six sampling sites. The highest Co level was observed at site 6 and the lowest at site 2. In forage samples, Co level ranged from 0.770 to 2.309 mg/kg in the six sampling sites. The highest Co level was observed at site 3 and the lowest at site 2. In blood plasma samples, Co level ranged from 2.644 to 4.927 mg/kg in the six sampling sites. The highest Co level was observed at site 1 and the lowest at site 3. The results showed higher Co values in the samples collected from the site IV while the bioconcentration factor for forage-soil was found highest in the samples collected from Site III. On the other hand, a correlation was found positively significant when soil and forage were correlated, and it was found negatively significant when blood and forage were correlated.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Abbas M, Parveen Z, Iqbal Z, Riazuddin M, Iqbal S, Ahmed M, Bhutto R (2010) Monitoring of toxic metals (cadmium, lead, arsenic and mercury) in vegetables of Sindh, Pakistan, Kathmandu University. J Sci Engin Technol 6(2):60–65
Adriano DC (1986) Trace elements in the terrestrial environment. Springer-Verlag Inc, New York, pp 1–45
Ahmad K, Khan ZI, Ashfaq A, Ashraf M, Yasmin S (2014) Assessment of heavy metal and metalloid levels in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) grown in wastewater irrigated agricultural soil of Sargodha, Pakistan. Pak J Bot 46(5):1805–1810
Ahmad K, Nawaz K, Khan ZI et al (2018a) Effect of diverse regimes of irrigation on metals accumulation in wheat crop: an assessment-dire need of the day. Fresen Environ Bull 27(2):846–855
Ahmad K, Kokab R, Khan ZI, Ashfaq A, Bashir H, Mudasra M et al (2018b) Assessment of heavy metals in wheat variety “Chagi-2” under short-term wastewater irrigation. Biologia (Pakistan) 64(1):15–25
Aksoy A, Ozturk MA (1997) Nerium oleander L. as a biomonitor of lead and other heavy metal pollution in Mediterranean environments. Sci Total Environ 205:145–150
Alloway BJ, Ayres DC (1997) Chemical principles for environmental pollution. Blackie Academic Profes, pp 190–220
Amlan K, Ghosh MA, Bhatt HP, Agrawal A (2012) Effect of long-term application of treated sewage water on heavy metal accumulation in vegetables grown in Northern India. Environ Monit Assess 184:1025–1036
Briggs H, Briggs HM (1980) Modern breeds of livestock, Fourth edn. McMillion Publishing Co, London
Celechovska O, Malota L, Zima Z (2008) Entry of heavy metals into food chains: a 20-years comparison study in the Northern Moravia (Czech Republic). Act Vet Brnao 77:645–652
Cui YL, Zhu RH, Zhi RH et al (2004) Transfer of metals from soils to vegetables in an area near a smelter in Nanning, China. Environ Int 30:785–791
Devendra C, Thomas D (2002) Crop–animal systems in Asia: importance of livestock and characterization of agro-ecological zones. Agric Sys 71(1–2):5–15
Dogan Y, Ugulu I, Baslar S (2010) Turkish red pine as a biomonitor: a comparative study of the accumulation of trace elements in needles and barks. Ekoloji 19(75):88–96. https://doi.org/10.5053/ekoloji.2010.7512
Dogan Y, Baslar S, Ugulu I (2014a) A study on detecting heavy metal accumulation through biomonitoring: content of trace elements in plants at Mount Kazdagi in Turkey. Appl Ecol Environ Res 12(3):627–636. https://doi.org/10.15666/aeer/1203_627636
Dogan Y, Unver MC, Ugulu I, Calis M, Durkan N (2014b) Heavy metal accumulation in the bark and leaves of Juglans regia planted in Artvin City, Turkey. Biotech Biotechnol Equip 28(4):643–649. https://doi.org/10.1080/13102818.2014.947076
Durkan N, Ugulu I, Unver MC, Dogan Y, Baslar S (2011) Concentrations of trace elements aluminum, boron, cobalt and tin in various wild edible mushroom species from Buyuk Menderes River Basin of Turkey by ICP-OES. Trace Elements and Electrolytes 28(4):242–248. https://doi.org/10.5414/TEX01198
Haktanir K (1983) Cevre Kirliligi, Ankara Un. Ziraat Fak. Yay., Ankara, Turkey (in Turkish).
Huston JE, White RG, Bequette BJ et al (2006) Nutrient requirements of small ruminants: sheep, goats, cervids, and New World camelids. The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.
IRIS (2003) Integrated Risk Information System database. US Environmental Protection Agency
Kacar B (1996) Toprak Analizleri, Ankara Universitesi Ziraat Fak Egitim Arastırma Gelistirme Vakfi Yay, Ankara, Turkey (in Turkish).
Kalavrouziotis IK, Carter J, Varnavas SP, Mehra AA, Drakatos PA (2007) Towards an understanding of the effect of road pollution on adjacent food crops: zea mays as an example. Int J Environ Pollut 30(3/4):576–592
Kamal KT, Lofti K, Omer KD, Mohammad RE, Obuleiz KB (2015) Heavy metals concentrations in fish from Red sea and Arabian gulf. Health benefits and risk assessments due to their consumptions. Asian J Chem 27:4411–4416
Khan ZI, Ahmad K, Safdar H, Ugulu I, Wajid K, Bashir H, Dogan Y (2018d) Manganese bioaccumulation and translocation of in forages grown in soil irrigated with city effluent: an evaluation on health risk. Res J Pharmaceut Biol Chem Sci 9(5):759–770
Khan ZI, Ugulu I, Sahira S, Ahmad K, Ashfaq A, Mehmood N, Dogan Y (2018a) determination of toxic metals in fruits of Abelmoschus esculentus grown in contaminated soils with different irrigation sources by spectroscopic method. Int J Environ Res 12:503–511. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41742-018-0110-2
Khan ZI, Ugulu I, Umar S, Ahmad K, Mehmood N, Ashfaq A, Bashir H, Sohail M (2018b) Potential toxic metal accumulation in soil, forage and blood plasma of buffaloes sampled from Jhang, Pakistan. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 101:235–242. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-018-2353-1
Khan ZI, Ugulu I, Ahmad K, Yasmeen S, Noorka IR, Mehmood N, Sher M (2018c) Assessment of trace metal and metalloid accumulation and human health risk from vegetables consumption through spinach and coriander specimens irrigated with wastewater. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 101:787–795. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-018-2448-8
Liu W, Zhao JZ, Ouyang ZY, Soderlund L, Liu GH (2005) Impacts of sewage irrigation on heavy metals distribution and contamination. Environ Int 31:805–812
Marianna B, Cortivo C, Barion G, Mosca G, Vamerali T (2016) Phytoremediation opportunities with alimurgic species in metal-contaminated environments. Pak J Bot:213–218
McDowell LR (1983) Minerals in animal and human nutrition. Academic Press, New York
Minervino A, Junior H, Ferreira RA (2009) Clinical observations of cattle and buffalos with experimentally induced chronic copper poisoning. Res Vet Sci 87:473–478
Murray RK, Granner DK, Mayes PA, Rodwell VW (2000) Harper’s Biochemistry, 25th edn. McGraw-Hill, Health Profession Division, USA
Nadeem M, Qureshi TM, Ugulu I, Riaz MN, An QU, Khan ZI, Ahmad K, Ashfaq A, Bashir H, Dogan Y (2019) Mineral, vitamin and phenolic contents and sugar profiles of some prominent date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) varieties of Pakistan. Pak J Bot 51(1):171–178. https://doi.org/10.30848/PJB2019-1(14)
Nwede D, Okoye O, Babayemi P (2010) Heavy metal levels in animal muscle tissue: a case study of Nigerian raises cattles. Res J Appl Sci 5(2):146–150
Radwan MA, Salama AK (2006) Market basket survey for some heavy metals in Egyptian fruits and vegetables. Food Chem Toxicol 44:1273–1278
Richards LA (1968) Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkaline soils., Agri. Handbook No. 60, 1st edn. IBH Pub. Co., New Delhi
Sabudak T, Seren G, Kaykıoglu G, Dincer AR (2007) Determination of trace elements in soil and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plant parts. Fresen Environ Bull 16:1274–1278
Sainger P, Dhankhar A, Sainger R, Kawushik M, Singh RP (2011) Assessment of heavy metal tolerance in native plant species from soils contaminated with electroplating effluent. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 74:2284–2291
Saskia A, Yamaji N, Yokosho K, Ma JF (2013) Nramp5 is a major transporter responsible for manganese and cadmium uptake in rice. Environ Int 24(5):2155–2167
Smith I, Carson BL (1981) Trace metals in the environment. Ann. Arbor, M.I. Ann Arbor Science Publishers, New York, p 32
Dutch standards (2000) Circular on target values and intervention values for soil remediation.
Steel R, Torrie JH (1980) Principle and procedures of statistics, a biometrical approach, 2nd edn. McGraw Hill Book Co. Inc, New York, pp 336–354
Tomlinson DL, Wilson JG, Harris CR, Jeffrey DW (1980) Problems in the assessment of heavy metal levels in estuaries and the formation of a pollution index. Helgolaender Meeresunter 33:566–575
Tshibangu T, Nsahlai VI, Kiatok MH, Hornick JL (2014) Heavy metals concentration in Adenodolichos rhomboideus (O. Hoffm.) Harms. forage growing on mining tailings in south east of Democratic Republic of Congo: Influence of washing, Ph and soil concentrations. Int J Curr Res Bio Sci Plant Biol 1(5):16–27
Ugulu I (2015a) A quantitative investigation on recycling attitudes of gifted/talented students. Biotech Biotechnol Equip 29:20–26. https://doi.org/10.1080/13102818.2015.1047168
Ugulu I (2015b) Determination of heavy metal accumulation in plant samples by spectrometric techniques in Turkey. Appl Spectros Rev 50(2):113–151. https://doi.org/10.1080/05704928.2014.935981
Ugulu I, Baslar S (2010) The determination and fidelity level of medicinal plants used to make traditional Turkish salves. J Alternative Compl Med 16(3):313–322. https://doi.org/10.1080/13102818.2009.10818451
Ugulu I, Baslar S, Dogan Y, Aydin H (2009) The determination of colour intensity of Rubia tinctorum and Chrozophora tinctoria distributed in Western Anatolia. Biotech Biotechnol Equip 23(SE):410–413
Ugulu I, Dogan Y, Baslar S, Varol O (2012) Biomonitoring of trace element accumulation in plants growing at Murat Mountain. Int J Environ Sci Tech 9:527–534. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-012-0056-4
Ugulu I, Unver MC, Dogan Y (2016) Determination and comparison of heavy metal accumulation level of Ficus carica bark and leaf samples in Artvin, Turkey. Oxid Commun 39(1):765–775
Umar A, Birnin AU, Muhammad C (2015) Acacia Nilotica as bio indicator of copper and cobalt production due to vehicular emission along the main entrance road of Usmanu Danfodio University Skoto, Nigeria. Int J Adv Res Chem Sci 2:1–8
Unver MC, Ugulu I, Durkan N, Baslar S, Dogan Y (2015) Heavy metal contents of Malva sylvestris sold as edible greens in the local markets of Izmir. Ekoloji 24(96):13–25. https://doi.org/10.5053/ekoloji.2015.01
USEPA (US Environmental Protection Agency) (2002) Region 9. In: Preliminary Remediation Goals
Yorek N, Ugulu I, Aydin H (2016) Using self-organizing neural network map combined with ward’s clustering algorithm for visualization of students’ cognitive structural models about aliveness concept. Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience, Article ID 2476256:1–14. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/2476256
Zahara B, Khan ZI, Ahmad K et al (2014) Vegetables as a potential source of metals and metalloids for human nutrition: a case study of Momordica charantia Grown in Soil Irrigated with Domestic Sewage Water in Sargodha, Pakistan. Pak J Zool 46(3):633–641
Zhang H, Lou Y, Song J et al (2007) Predicting As, Cd and Pb uptake by rice and vegetables using fields data from China. J Environ Sci 23:70–78
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues
About this article
Cite this article
Khan, Z.I., Arshad, N., Ahmad, K. et al. Toxicological potential of cobalt in forage for ruminants grown in polluted soil: a health risk assessment from trace metal pollution for livestock. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26, 15381–15389 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-04959-9