Effect of acute gold nanorods on reproductive function in male albino rats: histological, morphometric, hormonal, and redox balance parameters
- 96 Downloads
In this study, we investigated the effect of acute administration of gold nanorods (AuNRs) on testicular function, sexual hormones, and oxidative stress parameters in male albino rats. Forty mature male albino rats were divided into two equal groups (n = 20/each). The first group received 1 ml saline solution intraperitoneally (i.p.). The second group received single i.p. injection of 75 μg 50 nm AuNRs/kg/bwt. Five rats from each group were sacrificed on days 1, 3, 7, and 14 post treatment and blood samples were collected for hormonal and biochemical analysis. Testes were collected from each group at each time point for histopathology, morphometric, and transmission electron microscope analyses of testis and epididymis. Results indicated that i.p. injection of AuNRs did not produce any histopathological changes. Morphometric analysis of testicular samples revealed that the height of lining epithelium was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in AuNR group on days 3 and 14 post treatment, and the minor axis of seminiferous tubules was higher (P < 0.05) in AuNR-injected rats than in control group. For the epididymis, the number of spermatozoa was significantly (P < 0.05) higher on days 7 and 14 after AuNR injection when compared with control rats. AuNRs were not detected by TEM at all time points of the experiment. Serum analysis demonstrated that total and free testosterone values significantly (P < 0.05) increased on days 1, 3, 7, and 14 post AuNR injection. LH was higher (P < 0.05) in AuNRs-injected rats on days 3, 7, and 14 post injection, while FSH values were higher (P < 0.05) in AuNR group on days 3 and 14. Malondialdehyde significantly (P < 0.05) decreased on days 3, 7, and 14 in AuNR group, while catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase values were significantly (P < 0.05) elevated on days 3, 7, and 14 in AuNRs-injected rats compared with control group. In conclusion, intraperitoneal injection of 50 nm AuNRs is safe on the reproductive function and has an antioxidant action.
Keywords50 nm AuNRs Acute study Histopathological examination Transmission electron microscope Sexual hormone Oxidative stress parameters
The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support provide by Misr El-Kheir Foundation to conduct this work (Proj ID: LGA 03 15 0032, entitled Applications of photothermal therapy using gold nanoparticles in cancer).
Compliance with ethical standards
All the procedures performed in the current study were in accordance with the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals published by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH Publication No. 85-23, revised 1996) and approved by ZU-IACUC (2/F/27/2018).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Abdelhalim MA (2013) Uptake of gold nanoparticles in several rat organs after intraperitoneal administration in vivo: a fluorescence study. Biomed Res Int 353695Google Scholar
- Abdoon AS, Al-Ashkar EA, Shabaka A, Kandil OM, Eisa WH, Shaban AM, Khaled HM, El Ashkar MR, El Shaer M, Shaalan AH, El Sayed MA (2015) Normal pregnancy and lactation in a cat after treatment of mammary gland tumor when using photothermal therapy with gold nanorods: a case report. J Nanomed Nanotechnol 6(5):1Google Scholar
- Abdoon AS, Al-Ashkar EA, Kandil OM, Shaban AM, Khaled HM, El Sayed MA, El Shaer MM, Shaalan AH, Eisa WH, Eldin AA, Hussein HA, El Ashkar MR, Ali MR, Shabaka AA (2016) Efficacy and toxicity of plasmonic photothermal therapy (PPTT) using gold nanorods (GNRs) against mammary tumors in dogs and cats. Nanomedicine 12(8):2291–2297. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nano.2016.07.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Adebayo OA, Akinloye O, Adaramoye OA (2018) Cerium oxide nanoparticle elicits oxidative stress, endocrine imbalance and lowers sperm characteristics in testes of balb/c mice. Andrologia 50Google Scholar
- Behnammorshedi M, Nazem H, Moghadam MS (2015) The effect of gold nanoparticle on luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, testosterone and testis in male rat. Biomed Res 26(2)Google Scholar
- De Jong WH, Hagens WI, Krystek P, Burger MC, Sips AJ, Geertsma RE (2008) Particle size-dependent organ distribution of gold nanoparticles after intravenous administration. Biomaterials 29:1912–1919. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2007.12.037 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- El-Sayed MA, Shabaka AA, El-Shabrawy OA, Yassin NA, Mahmoud SS, El-Shenawy SM, Al-Ashqar E, Eisa WH, Farag NM, El-Shaer MA, Salah N, Al-Abd AM (2013) Tissue distribution and efficacy of gold nanorods coupled with laser induced photoplasmonic therapy in ehrlich carcinoma solid tumor model. PLoS One 8(10):e76207. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076207 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ferreira GK, Cardoso E, Vuolo FS, Galant LS, Michels M, Gonçalves CL, Rezin GT, Dal-Pizzol F, Benavides R, Alonso-Núñez G, Andrade VM, Streck EL, da Silva Paula MM (2017) Effect of acute and long-term administration of gold nanoparticles on biochemical parameters in rat brain. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 79:748–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lan ZW, Yang X (2012) Nanoparticles and spermatogenesis: how do nanoparticles affect spermatogenesis and penetrate the blood-testis barrier. Nano Med 7(4):579–596Google Scholar
- Morishita Y, Yoshioka Y, Satoh H, Nojiri N, Nagano K, Abe Y, Kamada H, Tsunoda S, Nabeshi H, Yoshikawa T, Tsutsumi Y (2012) Distribution and histologic effects of intravenously administered amorphous nanosilica particles in the testes of mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 420:297–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Osinubi AA, Noronha CC, Okanlawon AO (2005) Morphlogical and stereological assessment of the effect of long term administration of quinine on the morphology of rat testis. West Afr J Med 24(3):200–205Google Scholar
- Seethalakshmi L, Flores C, Carboni AA, Bala R, Diamond DA, Menon M (1990) Cyclosporine: its effects on testicular function and fertility in the prepubertal rat. J Androl 11:17–24Google Scholar
- Suvarna K, Layton SC, Bancroft JD (2013) Bancroft's theory and practice of histological techniques, 7th ednGoogle Scholar
- Wang X, Shao M, Zhang S, Lui X (2013) Biomedical applications of gold nanorod-based multifunctional nano-carriers. J Nanopart Res 15(1892):1–16Google Scholar
- Wennerberg A, Jimbo R, Allard S, Skarnemark G, Andersson M (2011) In vivo stability of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles coated on titanium implant surfaces. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 26:1161–1166Google Scholar
- Yoisungnern T, Choi YJ, Woong Han J, Kang MH, Das J, Gurunathan S, Kwon DN, Cho SG, Park C, Kyung Chang W, Chang BS, Parnpai R, Kim JH (2015) Internalization of silver nanoparticles into mouse spermatozoa results in poor fertilization and compromised embryo development. Sci Rep 5:11170. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep11170 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zakhidov ST, Pavliuchenkova SM, Marshak TL, Rudoĭ VM, Dement'eva OV, Zelenina IA, Skuridin SG, Makarov AA, Khokhlov AN, Evdokimov IM (2012) Effect of gold nanoparticles on mouse spermatogenesis. Izv Akad Nauk Ser Biol 3:279–287 RussianGoogle Scholar