Socio-economic and environmental factors influenced the United Nations healthcare sustainable agenda: evidence from a panel of selected Asian and African countries

Abstract

The objective of the study is to evaluate socio-economic and environmental factors that influenced the United Nations healthcare sustainable agenda in a panel of 21 Asian and African countries. The results show that changes in price level (0.0062, p < 0.000), life risks of maternal death (4.579, p < 0.000), and under-5 mortality rate (0.374, p < 0.000) substantially increases out-of-pocket health expenditures, while CO2 emissions (5.681, p < 0.003), prevalence of undernourishment (15.184, p < 0.000), PM2.5 particulate emission (1557, p < 0.000), unemployment, and private health expenditures (30.729, p < 0000) are associated with high mortality rate across countries. Healthcare reforms affected by low healthcare spending, unsustainable environment, and ease of environmental regulations that ultimately increases mortality rate across countries. The Granger causality estimates confirmed the different causal mechanisms between socio-economic and environmental factors, which is directly linked with the country’s healthcare agenda, i.e., the causality running from (i) CO2 emissions to life risks of maternal death and under-5 mortality rate, (ii) from depth of food deficit to incidence of tuberculosis and unemployment, (iii) from PM2.5 emissions to infant mortality rate, (iv) from foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows to PM2.5 emissions, (v) from trade openness to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and (vi) from mortality indicators to per capita income, while there is a feedback relationship between health expenditures and per capita income across countries. The variance decomposition analysis shows that (i) under-5 mortality rate will increase out-of-pocket health expenditures, (ii) unemployment rate will increase mortality indicators, and (iii) health expenditures will increase economic well-being in a panel of selected countries, for the next 10 years.

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Abbreviations

CO2 emissions :

Caron dioxide emissions

PM2.5 :

Particulate emission 2.5 micrograms

FDI:

Foreign direct investment

GHG emissions:

Greenhouse gas emissions

MDGs:

Millennium development goals

DRATE:

Death rate

DFD:

Depth of food deficit

EME:

Energy associated methane emissions

HEXP:

Health expenditures

HEXPVT:

Private health expenditures

HEXPUB:

Public health expenditures

ISF:

Improved sanitation facility

IWS:

Improved water source

ITUB:

Incidence of tuberculosis

CPI:

Consumer price index

LRMD:

Lifetime risk of maternal death

MMR:

Maternal mortality ratio

MRF:

Female mortality ratio

MRM:

Male mortality ratio

IMR:

Infant mortality rate

NMR:

Neonatal mortality rate

MR5:

Under-5 mortality rate

NOX:

Nitrous oxide emissions

NMV:

Nurses and midwives

OPHEXP:

Out-of-pocket health expenditures

PHYS:

Physicians

PDEN:

Population density

PUN:

Prevalence of undernourishment

TOP:

Trade openness

UNEMP:

Unemployment rate

MSA:

Measures of sampling adequacy

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Acknowledgments

The authors would like to extend their sincere appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University for its funding this Research group No. (RG-1436-037).

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Table 10 Countries Sample

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Saleem, H., Jiandong, W., Aldakhil, A.M. et al. Socio-economic and environmental factors influenced the United Nations healthcare sustainable agenda: evidence from a panel of selected Asian and African countries . Environ Sci Pollut Res 26, 14435–14460 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-04692-3

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Keywords

  • Environmental factors
  • Socio-economic factors
  • healthcare infrastructure
  • carbon dioxide emissions
  • GHG emissions
  • Asian-African countries

JEL Classification

  • C33
  • I15
  • J17