This paper aims to set up viable units of thermal processing of numerous agricultural wastes in a sustainable development and eco-friendly approach that could create new economic profitable circuits in an increasingly competitive context. One of the most problematic food wastes are tomato processing by-products; concentrating and canning industrial activities generate important amounts of them, particularly in the Tunisian context. As no reference was found in literature dealing with these last residues, this work intended to explore their potential as biomass fuels. Pyrolysis is then applied in thermogravimetric conditions for different heating rates (5, 10, 20, and 30 °C/min) in order to recover energy on one hand and to extract the corresponding kinetic parameters for an accurate design of reactors on the other hand. Main results include suitability of the tomato residues to a thermal valorization thanks to high contents of volatiles and fixed carbon and low ash percentage as well as an interesting heating value comparable to lignocellulosic biomass. Mass loss profiles indicate consecutive and overlapping stages of drying, active pyrolysis, and passive pyrolysis. The experimental profiles of conversion rate were well fitted by the three isoconversional methods; the best fitting is recorded by the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa associated with a first-order model for the intermediate pyrolysis and with a contracted sphere (n = 1/3) for the slowest studied pyrolysis.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Almeida J, Achten WMJ, Verbist B, Heuts RF, Schrevens E, Muys B (2014) Carbon and water footprints and energy use of greenhouse tomato production in Northern Italy. J Ind Ecol 18(6):898–908
Antal MJ, Friedman HL, Rogers FE (1980) Kinetics of cellulose pyrolysis in nitrogen and steam. Combust Sci Technol 21(3–4):141–152
Chouchene A, Jeguirim M, Khiari B, Zagrouba F, Trouvé G (2010) Thermal degradation of olive solid waste: influence of particle size and oxygen concentration. Resour Conserv Recycl 54(5):271–277
Crews C, Hough P, Godward J, Brereton P, Lees M, Guiet S, Winkelmann W (2006) Quantitation of the main constituents of some authentic grape-seed oils of different origin. J Agric Food Chem 54(17):6261–6265
Encinar JM, González JF, Martínez G (2008) Energetic use of the tomato plant waste. Fuel Process Technol 89(11):1193–1200
Flynn JH, Wall LA (1966) General treatment of thermogravimetry of polymers. J Res Nat Stan Sec A 70(A):487–523
Font R, Moltó J, Gálvez A, Rey MD (2009) Kinetic study of the pyrolysis and combustion of tomato plant. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 85(1):268–275
Friedman HL (1964) Kinetics of thermal degradation of char-forming plastics from thermogravimetry. Application to a phenolic plastic. Journal of Polymer Science Part C: Polymer Symposia 6(1):183–195
González JF, González-Garcı́a CM, Ramiro A, González J, Sabio E, Gañán J, Rodrı́guez MA (2004) Combustion optimisation of biomass residue pellets for domestic heating with a mural boiler. Biomass Bioenergy 27(2):145–154
Jeguirim M, Elmay Y, Limousy L, Lajili M, Said R (2014) Devolatilization behavior and pyrolysis kinetics of potential Tunisian biomass fuels. Environ Prog Sustain Energy 33(4):1452–1458
Jeguirim M, Kraiem N, Lajili M, Guizani C, Zorpas A, Leva Y, Michelin L, Josien L, Limousy L (2017) The relationship between mineral contents, particle matter and bottom ash distribution during pellet combustion: molar balance and chemometric analysis. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24(11):9927–9939
Khiari B, Jeguirim M (2018) Pyrolysis of grape marc from Tunisian wine industry: feedstock characterization, thermal degradation and kinetic analysis. Energies 11(4):730–744
Khiari B, Marias F, Vaxelaire J, Zagrouba F (2007) Incineration of a small particle of wet sewage sludge: a numerical comparison between two states of the surrounding atmosphere. J Hazard Mater 147(3):871–882
Khiari B, Marias F, Zagrouba F, Vaxelaire J (2008) Transient mathematical modelling of a fluidized bed incinerator for sewage sludge. J Clean Prod 16(2):178–191
Khiari B, Moussaoui M, Jeguirim M (2019) Tomato processing by-products combustion: thermal and kinetic analyses. Materials 12(4):553–564
Kissinger HE (1956) Variation of peak temperature with heating rate in differential thermal analysis. J Res Natl Bur Stand 57(4):217–221
Kordoghli S, Parashiv M, Tazerout M, Khiari B, Zagrouba F (2017a) Novel catalytic systems for waste tires pyrolysis: optimization of gas fraction. J Energy Resour Technol 139(3):032203
Kordoghli S, Khiari B, Paraschiv M, Zagrouba F, Tazerout M (2017b) Impact of different catalysis supported by oyster shells on the pyrolysis of tyre wastes in a single and a double fixed bed reactor. Waste Manag 67:288–297
Kraiem N, Lajili M, Limousy L, Said R, Jeguirim M (2016) Energy recovery from Tunisian agri-food wastes: evaluation of combustion performance and emissions characteristics of green pellets prepared from tomato residues and grape marc. Energy 107:409–418
Mangut V, Sabio E, Gañán J, González JF, Ramiro A, González CM, Román S, Al-Kassir A (2006) Thermogravimetric study of the pyrolysis of biomass residues from tomato processing industry. Fuel Process Technol 87(2):109–115
Rossini G, Toscano G, Duca D, Corinaldesi F, Foppa Pedretti E, Riva G (2013) Analysis of the characteristics of the tomato manufacturing residues finalized to the energy recovery. Biomass Bioenergy 51:177–182
Ruiz Celma A, Cuadros F, López-Rodríguez F (2012) Characterization of pellets from industrial tomato residues. Food Bioprod Process 90(4):700–706
Souilem S, El-Abbassi A, Kiai H, Hafidi A, Sayadi S, Galanakis CM (2017) Chapter 1—olive oil production sector: environmental effects and sustainability challenges. In: Galanakis CM (ed) Olive Mill Waste. Academic Press, pp 1–28
Tillman DA (2000) Biomass cofiring: the technology, the experience, the combustion consequences. Biomass Bioenergy 19(6):365–384
Yan B-H, Cao C-X, Cheng Y, Jin Y, Cheng Y (2014) Experimental investigation on coal devolatilization at high temperatures with different heating rates. Fuel 117:1215–1222
Yargıç AŞ, Yarbay Şahin RZ, Özbay N, Önal E (2015) Assessment of toxic copper(II) biosorption from aqueous solution by chemically-treated tomato waste. J Clean Prod 88:152–159
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues
About this article
Cite this article
Khiari, B., Massoudi, M. & Jeguirim, M. Tunisian tomato waste pyrolysis: thermogravimetry analysis and kinetic study. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26, 35435–35444 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-04675-4
- Tomato waste
- Thermogravimetric analysis