Aluminium foil dampened the adverse effect of 2100 MHz mobile phone–induced radiation on the blood parameters and myocardium in rats


Mobile phones emit a radiofrequency radiation (RFR) that might have adverse health effects. We aimed to investigate the possible protective effects of aluminium foil (AF) as a physical shield against the RFR from mobile phones on the blood parameters and the myocardium in rats. The effects of whole body 2100 MHz with 0.84–1.86 W/kg of SAR, 4 h/day for 30 days Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)-RFR exposure for 4 h/day for 30 days on blood parameters (i.e. haemoglobin, leucocytes, thrombocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, white blood cell differential count, corticosterone, CKMB), and the histology of myocardium were investigated. Three-month-old male rats (n = 32) were studied and randomised equally in the following four groups: K1 (non-AF non-RFR control), K2 (AF non-RFR control), P1 (non-AF RFR-exposed), P2 (AF RFR-exposed). Data were analysed with level of significance of p < 0.05. In P1, lower leucocytes and neutrophils counts with high corticosterone levels were found compared with the control groups, whilst a significantly higher CKMB was observed compared with P2 (p = 0.034). Lower cardiomyocyte counts congruent to the area fraction of the non-fibrotic myocardium were observed in P1 compared with the other groups (p < 0.01). AF might decrease the inflammatory-oxidative stress on rodent’s blood cells and myocardium induced by the exposures of radiofrequency radiation of the mobile phones.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1


  1. Black DR, Heynick LN (2003) Radiofrequency (RF) effects on blood cells, cardiac, endocrine, and immunological functions. Bioelectromagnet Suppl 6:S187–S195

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Daunoravicius D, Besusparis J, Zurauskas E, Laurinaviciene A, Bironaite D, Pankuweit S, Plancoulaine B, Herlin P, Bogomolovas J, Grabauskiene V, Laurinavicius A (2014) Quantification of myocardial fibrosis by digital image analysis and interactive stereology. BMC Diagn Pathol 9:114

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. De Iuliis GN, Newey RJ, King BV et al (2009) Mobile phone radiation induces reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage in human spermatozoa in vitro. PLoS One 4(7):e6446

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Frohlich ED (2001) Fibrosis and ischemia: the real risks in hypertensive heart disease. Am J Hypertens 14:194S–199S

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Gumral N, Saygin M, Asci H et al (2016) The effects of electromagnetic radiation (2450 MHz wireless devices) on the heart and blood tissue: role of melatonin. Bratisl Med J 117:665–671

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Hales PW, Burton RAB, Bollensdorff C, Mason F, Bishop M, Gavaghan D, Kohl P, Schneider JE (2011) Progressive changes in T1, T2 and left-ventricular histo-architecture in the fixed and embedded rat heart. NMR Biomed 24:836–843

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Huang AT, Mold NG (1980) Imunologic and hematopoietic alterations by 2450 MHz electromagnetic radiation. Bioelectromagnetic 1(1):77–87

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Kalanjati VP, Wixey JA, Miller SM, Colditz PB, Bjorkman ST (2017) GABAA receptor expression and white matter disruption in intrauterine growth restricted piglets. Int J Dev Neurosci 59:1–9

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Kovacic P, Somanathan R (2010) Electromagnetic fields: mechanism, cell signaling, other bioprocesses, toxicity, radicals, antioxidants and beneficial effects. J Recept Signal Transduct Res 30:214–226

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Mahdavi SM, Sahraei H, Yaghmaei P, Tavakoli H (2014) Effects of electromagnetic radiation exposure on stress-related behaviors and stress hormones in male Wistar rats. Biomol Ther 22:570–576

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Mailankot M, Kunnath AP, Jayalekshmi H, Koduru B, Valsalan R (2009) Radio frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) from GSM (0.9/1.8GHz) mobile phones induces oxidative stress and reduces sperm motiliy in rats. Clinics 64:561–565

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Nadeljkovic XS, Gokce N, dan Loscalzo J (2003) Mechanisms of oxidative stress and vascular dysfunction. Postrad Med J 79:195–200

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Neumann E, Schaefer RM, Wang Y et al (1982) Gene transfer into mouse lyoma cells by electroporation in high electric fields. EMBO J 1:841–845

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Safer AM (2017) A quantitative description of lipid and extracellular matrix proteinaceous fibers in hepatic fibrosis of a rat model by ImageJ using nano-images. J Nanomed Nanotechnol 8:1–6

    Google Scholar 

  15. Sirswal A, Dewan MK (2016) Modeling effect of electromagnetic interference on cardiovascular system. IJRDASE 9:1–7

    Google Scholar 

  16. Smialowicz RJ, Weil CM, Marsh P et al (1981) Biological effects on long-term exposure of rats to 970-MHz radiofrequency radiation. Bioelectromagnetic 981:279–284

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Sobrino-Marquez JM, Grande-Trillo A, Cantero-Perez EM et al (2018) Prognostic value of blood panel parameters in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and advanced heart failure. Transplant Proc 50:650–652

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Venkataraman P, Khrisnamoorthy G, Selvakumar K et al (2009) Oxidative stress alters creatine kinase system in serum and brain regions of polychlorynated biphenyl (aroclor 1254)-exposed rats: protective role of melatonin. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxycol 105:92–97

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Willerson JT, Ridker PM (2004) Inflammation as a cardiovascular risk factor. Circulation 109(Suppl II):II2–II10

    Google Scholar 

Download references


Thank you to all colleagues and The Head of Department of Anatomy and Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga. Special appreciation to I. Farindra, D. Krismashogi, and E. Rambung for help and supports.


This study was funded by Universitas Airlangga.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Viskasari P. Kalanjati.

Ethics declarations

This study was approved by the Komite Etik Penelitian Kesehatan (Ethic Committee on Health Research) of the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga (No. 141/EC/KEPK/FKUA/2018).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kalanjati, V.P., Purwantari, K.E. & Prasetiowati, L. Aluminium foil dampened the adverse effect of 2100 MHz mobile phone–induced radiation on the blood parameters and myocardium in rats. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26, 11686–11689 (2019).

Download citation


  • Electromagnetics
  • Cardiomyopathy
  • Haematology
  • Oxidative stress
  • Pollutant