Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 10, pp 10414–10428 | Cite as

The impact of fertilizers on the uptake of manganese in Cherry Belle radish plants: implications for human health

  • ShellyAnn Clarke-Lambert
  • Dickens Saint Hilaire
  • Joachim Stock
  • Oluwaseun Salako
  • Madelaine Lebetkin
  • Umarbek Nasimov
  • Joel Strothers
  • Agata Blasczak-Boxe
  • Dereck Skeete
  • Christopher Blaszczak-BoxeEmail author
Short Research and Discussion Article


Miracle-Gro Singles, Miracle-Gro Shake and Feed, and Vigoro fertilizers are associated with net loss/enhancement of Mn, up to an order of magnitude when referenced to controls in soil, radish vegetables, and radish leaves; Mn enhancements are a factor of 4 to 65 below the daily required intake for humans (2–5.5 mg/day). Manganese levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Control soil, radish vegetables, and radish leaves contained 65 μg/g to 146 μg/g (median = 108), 65 μg/g to 357 μg/g (median = 281), and 185 μg/g to 401 μg/g (median = 323) of Mn, correspondingly. Manganese uptake was ten times greater in radish leaves compared to radish vegetables and enhanced by a factor of 3 in soils. Edible radish leaves/vegetables contain 65 times less than human Mn daily requirements. This equates eating 140 lb/day of radish vegetables/leaves. The fertilizers have a minor impact on Mn accumulation in radish leaves/vegetables. The USDA Nutrient Database for radish (0.69 μg/g of Mn) contradicts this notion as one would need to consume ~ 7 to 18 lb/day of radish to satisfy their daily intake. This study complements investigations showing that fertilizers induce minimal uptake of heavy metals in food; simultaneously, the net loss of Mn amounts observed in some samples of radish leaves and vegetables is analogous to the dilution effect of minerals/nutrients in edibles. Although a deficiency/excess of Mn in one’s diet may lead to adverse health effects, background inhalation exposure in general public, occupational, and emergency response settings has a greater influence on one’s propensity toward developing adverse health effects related to Mn inhalation exposure.


Manganese Manganism Radish Enhancement factor 



adequate Intake


Environmental Protection Agency




World Health Organization



We also like to thank Dr. Edward Catapane and Dr. Marageret Carol, both Professors of Biology at Medgar Evers College, for allotting us time to use their atomic absorption spectrometer.

Author’s contribution

Author Shelly Clarke-Lambert, Dickens Saint Hilaire, Joel Strothers, Madelaine Lebetkin, and Umarbek Nasimov aided in preparing/carrying out all the experiments and in drafting the manuscript. Agata Blaszczak-Boxe, Jochim Stock, Oluwaseun Salako, Dereck Skeete, and Christopher Blaszczak-Boxe designed and led all the experiments and the construction of the final version of the submitted manuscript.

Funding information

We are thankful for the support, which funded the investigation described herein, via Con-Edison (Grant No. 1054322).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • ShellyAnn Clarke-Lambert
    • 1
  • Dickens Saint Hilaire
    • 2
  • Joachim Stock
    • 1
  • Oluwaseun Salako
    • 1
  • Madelaine Lebetkin
    • 3
  • Umarbek Nasimov
    • 3
  • Joel Strothers
    • 1
  • Agata Blasczak-Boxe
    • 4
  • Dereck Skeete
    • 1
  • Christopher Blaszczak-Boxe
    • 1
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and Environmental ScienceMedgar Evers College-City University of New YorkBrooklynUSA
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry and Chemical TechnologyBronx Community CollegeBrooklynUSA
  3. 3.Brooklyn Technical High SchoolBrooklynUSA
  4. 4.Department of EnglishLehman CollegeBronxUSA
  5. 5.Earth and Environmental Science and Chemistry DivisionsGraduate Center of the City University of New YorkNew YorkUSA

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