Health risk assessment of heavy metals in Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) from the upper Mekong River
- 1.2k Downloads
The purposes of this research are to quantify the concentration of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, As, Pb, Cd, and Hg) in the water and fish tissues of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in the upper Mekong River and to thereby elucidate the potential dietary health risks from fish consumption of local residents. Surface water and fish tissues (gill, muscle, liver, and intestine) from four representative sample areas (influence by a cascade of four dams) along the river were analyzed for heavy metal concentrations. Results revealed that the levels of heavy metals in fish were tissue-dependent. The highest Cu and As levels were found in the liver; the highest Zn and Pb levels occurred in the intestine, and the highest Hg level was found in the muscle. The total target hazard quotient (THQ) value for residents is > 1 for long-term fish consumption, and local residents are, therefore, exposed to a significant health risk. Results from the current study provide an overall understanding of the spatial and tissue distribution of heavy metals in water and fish body along the upper Mekong River under the influence of cascade dams and highlight the potential health risk of As for the local residents of long-term fish consumption.
KeywordsHeavy metals Distribution Health risk assessment Mekong River Cascade dams
This work has been financially supported by the National Natural Science of China (Grant Nos. 21567029, 41571032, 41561144012), Yunnan University Graduate Students Fund (YNU2016018), and Outstanding Doctoral Cultivation Fund of Yunnan University (Grant No. ynuy201405).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Alhashemi AH, Karbassi A, Kiabi BH, Monavari SM, Sekhavatjou MS (2012) Bioaccumulation of trace elements in different tissues of three commonly available fish species regarding their gender, gonadosomatic index, and condition factor in a wetland ecosystem. Environ Monit Assess 184:1865–1878. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-011-2085-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bordajandi LR, Gómez G, Fernández MA, Abad E, Rivera J, González MJ (2003) Study on PCBs, PCDD/Fs, organochlorine pesticides, heavy metals and arsenic content in freshwater fish species from the River Turia (Spain). Chemosphere 53:163–171. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0045-6535(03)00417-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Chanpiwat P, Sthiannopkao S, Widmer K, Himeno S, Miyataka H, Vu N, Tran V, Pham T (2016) Assessment of metal and bacterial contamination in cultivated fish and impact on human health for residents living in the Mekong Delta. Chemosphere 163:342–350. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.08.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Danabas D, Ural M (2012) Determination of metal (Cu, Zn, Se, Cr and Cd) levels in tissues of the Cyprinid fish, Capoeta trutta (Heckel, 1843) from different regions of Keban Dam Lake (Euphrates-Turkey). Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 89:455–460. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-012-0744-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Karatas M (2008) Evaluation of heavy metals in fishes (Cyprinus carpio and Barbus plebejus) of Bedirkale Dam lake, Turkey. Asian J Chem 20:5741–5744Google Scholar
- Phan K, Phan S, Huoy L, Suy B, Wong MH, Hashim JH, Yasin MSM, Aljunid SM, Sthiannopkao S Kim K (2013a) Assessing mixed trace elements in groundwater and their health risk of residents living in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. Environ Pollut 182:111–119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2013.07.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Song JY, Fu KD, Su B, Huang QS, Hunag JC, Zhang JL (2013) Spatial distribution of heavy metal concentrations and pollution assessment in the bed loads of the Lancang River System. J Geogr Sci 68:389–397 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Storelli MM (2008) Potential human health risks from metals (Hg, Cd, and Pb) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) via seafood consumption: estimation of target hazard quotients (THQs) and toxic equivalents (TEQs). Food Chem Toxicol 46:2782–2788. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2008.05.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- USEPA (2000) Risk-based concentration table. United States Environment Protection Agency, Washington, DC, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
- USEPA (2009) Risk-based concentration table. United States Environment Protection Agency, Washington, DC, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
- Uysal K, Emre Y, Köse E (2008) The determination of heavy metal accumulation ratios in muscle, skin and gills of some migratory fish species by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) in Beymelek Lagoon (Antalya/Turkey). Microchem J 90:67–70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.microc.2008.03.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Xie WP, Chen KC, Zhu XP, Nie XP, Zhen GM, Pan DB, Wang SB (2010) Evaluation on heavy metal contents in water and fishes collected from the waterway in the Pearl River Delta, South China. J Agro-Environ Sci 29:1917–1923 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Yi YJ, Yang ZF, Zhang SH (2011) Ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in sediment and human health risk assessment of heavy metals in fishes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin. Environ Pollut 159:2575–2585. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2011.06.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yu Y, Wang YC, Zhou HD, Gao B, Zhao GF (2013) Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of heavy metals in carp (Cyprinus carpio) from the Three Gorges Reservoir after 175 m impoundment. Acta Sci Circumst 33:2012–2019 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Zhang JL, Fu KD, Wang B, Chen LQ, Song JY, Su B (2014) Assessment of heavy metal pollution of bed sediment in the Lancang River. Prog Geogr 33:1136–1144 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Zhao QH, Liu SL, Deng L, Yang ZF, Dong SK, Wang C, Zhang Z (2012) Spatio-temporal variation of heavy metals in fresh water after dam construction: a case study of the Manwan Reservoir, Lancang River. Environ Monit Assess 184:4253–4266. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-011-2260-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar