Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 9, pp 8543–8551 | Cite as

Perception of household in regards to water pollution: an empirical evidence from Pakistan

  • Adeel AhmedEmail author
  • Imran Shafique
Research Article


Water pollution is one of the main threats to public health in Pakistan. The watchdogs for drinking water quality are toothless, hence Pakistan’s ranking in maintaining water quality standards is 80th out of 122 nations. Despite such alarming situation coupled with violation of various drinking water quality parameters set by WHO, the risk perception of people remains an unfolded area of research. This paper examines the risk perception of household regarding water pollution in Pakistan and its potential effect on human health. In this way, we present a more analytical interpretation of the subject by collecting data from a survey questionnaire from one of the largest urban cities of Pakistan. Conclusions are drawn which stress that education, income, and knowledge of water pollution have higher impact on risk perception. From this position, and with the development of implications for policy, we demonstrate the need of a systematic quantification of various uncertainties that can provide more realistic support for remediation-related decisions to policy makers.


Public health Risk perception Human health Water pollution Water quality 



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.NUST Business SchoolNational University of Science and TechnologyIslamabadPakistan
  2. 2.Department of Management SciencesCOMSATS University IslamabadIslamabadPakistan

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