To investigate the correlation between the air phthalate acid ester (PAE) exposure and serum PAE concentration and the effects of PAE exposure on reproductive health among Chongqing traffic-patrol policemen. In 2013, 32 traffic-patrol policemen working in an area with poor air quality in Chongqing and 28 traffic-patrol policemen working in an area with good air quality were selected. Their blood levels of 14 PAEs and six reproductive hormones were determined. Air samples were collected from four traffic-patrol platforms. The concentrations of 14 PAEs in the air samples were evaluated. All 14 PAEs were detected in the blood samples. The concentrations of seven PAEs in the total suspended particulate, namely, dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, bis (2-ethox-yethyl) phthalate, dihexyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate, and bis (2-n-butoxyethyl) phthalate, were positively and significantly associated with the blood levels of these PAEs in the participants. All the sex hormone levels measured here were significantly different between the participants from the two areas. The PAE concentrations in the blood samples were correlated with the reproductive hormone levels in the participants. Air PAE pollution may be a major source of PAE exposure in the traffic-patrol policemen of Chongqing.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Chen JA, Liu H, Qiu Z, Shu W (2008) Analysis of di-n-butyl phthalate and other organic pollutants in Chongqing women undergoing parturition. Environ Pollut 156:849–853. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2008.05.019
Christiansen S, Boberg J, Axelstad M, Dalgaard M, Vinggaard AM, Metzdorff SB, Hass U (2010) Low-dose perinatal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate induces anti-androgenic effects in male rats. Reprod Toxicol 30:313–321. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2010.04.005
Das MT, Ghosh P, Thakur IS (2014) Intake estimates of phthalate esters for South Delhi population based on exposure media assessment. Environ Pollut 189:118–125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2014.02.021
Duty SM, Silva MJ, Barr DB, Brock JW, Ryan L, Chen Z, Herrick RF, Christiani DC, Hauser R (2003) Phthalate exposure and human semen parameters. Epidemiology 14:269–277
Duty SM, Calafat AM, Silva MJ, Ryan L, Hauser R (2005) Phthalate exposure and reproductive hormones in adult men. Hum Reprod 20:604–610. https://doi.org/10.1093/humrep/deh656
Fenton SE (2006) Endocrine-disrupting compounds and mammary gland development: early exposure and later life consequences. Endocrinology 147:S18–S24. https://doi.org/10.1210/en.2005-1131
Fu P, Kawamura K, Pavuluri C, Swaminathan T, Chen J (2010) Molecular characterization of urban organic aerosol in tropical India: contributions of primary emissions and secondary photooxidation. Atmos Chem Phys 10:2663–2689. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-2663-2010
Gavala HN, Alatriste-Mondragon F, Iranpour R, Ahring BK (2003) Biodegradation of phthalate esters during the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of sludge. Chemosphere 52:673–682. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(03)00126-7
Hauser R, Williams P, Altshul L, Calafat AM (2005) Evidence of interaction between polychlorinated biphenyls and phthalates in relation to human sperm motility. Environ Health Perspect 113:425–430
Hauser R, Meeker JD, Duty S, Silva MJ, Calafat AM (2006) Altered semen quality in relation to urinary concentrations of phthalate monoester and oxidative metabolites. Epidemiology 17:682–691. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ede.0000235996.89953.d7
Hess-Wilson JK, Knudsen KE (2006) Endocrine disrupting compounds and prostate cancer. Cancer Lett 241:1–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2005.10.006
Hotchkiss AK, Ostby JS, Vandenburgh JG, Gray LE Jr (2002) Androgens and environmental antiandrogens affect reproductive development and play behavior in the Sprague-Dawley rat. Environ Health Perspect 110(Suppl 3):435–439
HS B (2006) Clinical research of factors for premature labor and preventing premature labor. China J Mod Med 16:1096–1098
Huang Y, Li J, Garcia JM, Lin H, Wang Y, Yan P, Wang L, Tan Y, Luo J, Qiu Z, Chen JA, Shu W (2014) Phthalate levels in cord blood are associated with preterm delivery and fetal growth parameters in Chinese women. PLoS One 9:e87430. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087430
Jonsson BA, Richthoff J, Rylander L, Giwercman A, Hagmar L (2005) Urinary phthalate metabolites and biomarkers of reproductive function in young men. Epidemiology 16:487–493
Kamal A, Qamar K, Gulfraz M, Anwar MA, Malik RN (2015) PAH exposure and oxidative stress indicators of human cohorts exposed to traffic pollution in Lahore city (Pakistan). Chemosphere 120:59–67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.05.021
Li S, Dai J, Zhang L, Zhang J, Zhang Z, Chen B (2011) An association of elevated serum prolactin with phthalate exposure in adult men. Biomed Environ Sci 24:31–39. https://doi.org/10.3967/0895-3988.2011.01.004
Liu LBLJ, Zhang H, Feng LJ, Wang XY (2008) The clinical management of preterm premature rupture of membrane: to delivery or not. Chin J Obs/Gyne Pediat 4:46–49
Meeker JD, Calafat AM, Hauser R (2009) Urinary metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate are associated with decreased steroid hormone levels in adult men. J Androl 30:287–297. https://doi.org/10.2164/jandrol.108.006403
Pan G, Hanaoka T, Yoshimura M, Zhang S, Wang P, Tsukino H, Inoue K, Nakazawa H, Tsugane S, Takahashi K (2006) Decreased serum free testosterone in workers exposed to high levels of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP): a cross-sectional study in China. Environ Health Perspect 114:1643–1648
Pant N, Shukla M, Kumar Patel D, Shukla Y, Mathur N, Kumar Gupta Y, Saxena DK (2008) Correlation of phthalate exposures with semen quality. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 231:112–116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2008.04.001
Psillakis E, Mantzavinos D, Kalogerakis N (2004) Monitoring the sonochemical degradation of phthalate esters in water using solid-phase microextraction. Chemosphere 54:849–857. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2003.09.039
Rose RJ, Priston MJ, Rigby-Jones AE, Sneyd JR (2012) The effect of temperature on di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate leaching from PVC infusion sets exposed to lipid emulsions. Anaesthesia 67:514–520. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2044.2011.07006.x
Růžičková J, Raclavská H, Raclavský K, Juchelková D (2016) Phthalates in PM2.5 airborne particles in the Moravian-Silesian region, Czech Republic. Perspect Sci 7:178–183. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pisc.2015.11.029
Salapasidou M, Samara C, Voutsa D (2011) Endocrine disrupting compounds in the atmosphere of the urban area of Thessaloniki, Greece. Atmos Environ 45:3720–3729. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.04.025
Salgueirogonzález N, López d AM, Muniateguilorenzo S et al (2013) Determination of 13 estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds in atmospheric particulate matter by pressurised liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem 405:8913–8923. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-013-7298-y
Shakya KM, Rupakheti M, Aryal K, Peltier RE (2016) Respiratory effects of high levels of particulate exposure in a cohort of traffic police in Kathmandu, Nepal. J Occup Environ Med 58:e218–e225. https://doi.org/10.1097/jom.0000000000000753
State Environmental Protection (2005) Ambient air-determination of Total suspended particulates-gravimetric method (GB/T 15432-1995). Beijing
Teil MJ, Moreau-Guigon E, Blanchard M, Alliot F, Gasperi J, Cladière M, Mandin C, Moukhtar S, Chevreuil M (2016) Endocrine disrupting compounds in gaseous and particulate outdoor air phases according to environmental factors. Chemosphere 2016(146):94–104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.12.015
Tian HJ, Shu WQ, Zhang XK (2003) Organic pollutants in source water in Jialing River and Yangtze River (Chongqing section). Resources and Environment in the Yangtze Basin 12:18–123 (in Chinese)
Vitali M, Guidotti M, Macilenti G, Cremisini C (1997) Phthalate esters in freshwaters as markers of contamination sources—a site study in Italy. Environ Int 23:337–347
von Rettberg H, Hannman T, Subotic U, Brade J, Schaible T, Waag KL, Loff S (2009) Use of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate-containing infusion systems increases the risk for cholestasis. Pediatrics 124:710–716. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2008-1765
Wang P, Wang S, Fan CQ (2008) Atmospheric distribution of particulate- and gas-phase phthalic esters (PAEs) in a Metropolitan City, Nanjing, East China. Chemosphere 72:1567–1572. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.04.032
Wang W, Zhang Y, Wang S, Fan CQ, Xu H (2012) Distributions of phthalic esters carried by total suspended particulates in Nanjing, China. Environ Monit Assess 184:6789–6798. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-011-2458-z
Wensing M, Uhde E, Salthammer T (2005) Plastics additives in the indoor environment—flame retardants and plasticizers. Sci Total Environ 339:19–40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.10.028
Wirth JJ, Rossano MG, Potter R, Puscheck E, Daly DC, Paneth N, Krawetz SA, Protas BM, Diamond MP (2008) A pilot study associating urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and semen quality. Syst Biol Reprod Med 54:143–154. https://doi.org/10.1080/19396360802055921
Zeng F, Lin Y, Cui K, Wen J, Ma Y, Chen H, Zhu F, Ma Z, Zeng Z (2010) Atmospheric deposition of phthalate esters in a subtropical city. Atmos Environ 44:834–840. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.11.029
Zhu Z, Ji Y, Zhang S, Zhao J, Zhao J (2016) Phthalate ester concentrations, sources, and risks in the ambient air of Tianjin, China. Aerosol Air Qual Res 16:2294–2301. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2015.07.0473
The authors acknowledge all the traffic-patrol policemen who participated in this study.
This project was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 81072262 and 81372944).
Conflict of interest
We declare that this study has no conflicts of interest.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues
About this article
Cite this article
Lu, L., Rong, H., Wu, C. et al. Levels of phthalate acid esters and sex hormones and their possible sources in traffic-patrol policemen in Chongqing. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26, 9005–9013 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-04265-4
- Phthalate acid esters
- Traffic-patrol policemen
- Reproductive health