Process of fruit peel waste biorefinery: a case study of citrus waste biorefinery, its environmental impacts and recommendations

  • Saurabh N. Joglekar
  • Pranav D. Pathak
  • Sachin A. MandavganeEmail author
  • Bhaskar D. Kulkarni
Advances in chemical and bio process engineering


Fruit peels are a rich source of cellulose, hemicellulose, phenolic compounds, and terpenic compounds. Thus, they have the potential to be a novel renewable, sustainable, and low-cost raw material (source) for the production of several value-added products based on framework and concepts such as waste hierarchy that includes biofertilizers, dietary fiber, animal feed, industrial enzymes, substrate for the bioactive compounds production, synthesis of nanomaterials, and clean energy (from residual biomass). With a view of evaluating the environmental burden of biorefinery, a life cycle assessment (LCA) is performed for a representative citrus waste (CW) biorefinery. The functional unit used for LCA was set as 2500 kg of CW processed. The overall GWP was observed to be 937.3 kg CO2 equivalent per 2500 kg of CW processed. On further analysis of the environmental impact, it was found that different steps contributed significantly, as shown by the various environmental indicator values. Alternative advanced process intensification technologies like microwave and ultrasound-assisted steps replacing the conventional steps when implemented show considerable reduction in environmental indicator values. The variations in the contribution to environmental indicators should be considered during the design and process selection of biorefineries.


Fruit peel waste Valorization Biorefinery Value-added products LCA Citrus waste biorefinery 


Funding information

The authors are thankful to the Department of Science and Technology, India, for providing research grant (grant no. DST/TDT/TDP-02/2017) to undertake the work. BDK acknowledges the support as SERB Distinguished Fellow.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringVisvesvaraya National Institute of TechnologyNagpurIndia
  2. 2.MIT-School of Bioengineering Sciences & ResearchPuneIndia
  3. 3.CSIR-National Chemical LaboratoryPuneIndia

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