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Synthesis and applications of nano-TiO2: a review

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Abstract

TiO2-based nanomaterials have attracted prodigious attention as a photocatalysts in numerous fields of applications. In this thematic issue, the mechanism behind the photocatalytic activity of nano-TiO2 as well as the critical properties have been reviewed in details. The synthesis routes and the variables that affect the size and crystallinity of nano-TiO2 have also been discussed in detail. Moreover, a newly emerged class of color TiO2, TiO2 in aerogel form, nanotubes form, doped and undoped form, and other forms of TiO2 have been discussed in details. Photocatalytic and photovoltaic applications and the type of nano-TiO2 that is more suitable for these applications have been discussed in this review.

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Abbreviations

NPs:

Nanoparticles

NMs:

Nanomaterials

SEM:

Scanning electron microscopy

EDX:

Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

TTC:

Titanium tetrachloride

TTIP:

Titanium tetraisopropoxide

EG:

Ethylene glycol

MB:

Methylene blue

TEM:

Transmission electron microscopy

TiO2 :

Titanium dioxide, titania

RNP:

Resulting nanoparticles

XRD:

X-ray diffractometry

UV:

Ultraviolet

nm:

Nanometer

mL:

Milliliter

h:

Hour

°C:

Degree Celsius

K:

Kelvin

MPa:

Megapascals

Ks−1 :

Kelvin per second

mj m−2 :

Millijoule per square meter

TiCl4 :

Titanium tetrachloride

m2 g−1 :

Meter square per gram

eV:

Electron volts

OH· :

Hydroxyl radical

·O2 :

Super oxide anion

Ti:

Titanium

° :

Degree

S. aureus :

Staphylococcus aureus

E. coli :

Escherichia coli

JCPDS:

Joint Committee on Powder Diffraction Standards

N2 :

Nitrogen dioxide

CO2 :

Carbon dioxide

COD:

Chemical oxygen demand

ROS:

Reactive oxygen species

IR:

Infrared

3D:

Three dimensional

2D:

Two dimensional

V:

Volts

EPR:

Electron paramagnetic resonance

TNTs:

TiO2 nanotubes

TEOH:

Triethanol amine

pH:

Power of hydrogen

C. albicans :

Candida albicans

MO:

Methyl orange

RB:

Rhodamine B

HRTEM:

High-resolution transmission electron microscope

CHFS:

Continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis

FTO:

Fluorine-doped tin oxide

AFM:

Atomic force microscopy

TENOH:

Tetraethylammonium hydroxides

TANOH:

Tetraalkylammonium hydroxides

Ag:

Silver

Fe:

Ferric

Au:

Gold

TBNOH:

Tetrabutylammonium hydroxides

NaOH:

Sodium hydroxide

P25:

Commercially available TiO2

EN:

Ethylenediamine

FSP:

Flame spray pyrolysis

TGA-DTA:

Thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis

Cu:

Copper

BTCA:

Butane tetracarboxylic acid

CA:

Citric acid

NDMA:

N-Nitrosodimethylamine

DSSC:

Dye-sensitized solar cell

QDSSC:

Quantum dot-sensitized solar cell

DSPC:

Dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cell

FTIR:

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

η SUN :

Solar light-to-power conversion efficiency

J SC :

Short-circuit photocurrent

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Noman, M.T., Ashraf, M.A. & Ali, A. Synthesis and applications of nano-TiO2: a review. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26, 3262–3291 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3884-z

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