Removal of azo dye from water via adsorption on biochar produced by the gasification of wood wastes

  • Miguel Antônio Pires Kelm
  • Mário José da Silva Júnior
  • Sávio Henrique de Barros Holanda
  • Caroline Maria Bezerra de AraujoEmail author
  • Romero Barbosa de Assis Filho
  • Emerson Jaguaribe Freitas
  • Diogo Rafael dos Santos
  • Maurício Alves da Motta Sobrinho
Alternative Adsorbent Materials for Application in Processes Industrial


It was the aim of this work to evaluate the adsorptive performance of the biochar obtained from the gasification of wood residues onto a solution of Indosol Black NF1200 dye. The study was performed by means of factorial design 22, having as control variables: pH and adsorbent’s granulometry. Batch tests were carried out at 200 rpm for 3 h (T = 28 °C). As output variable, the percentage removal of dye was determined. The best operating conditions were pH = 2 and 100 mesh granulometry. Also, adsorbent dosage studies were carried out, as well as equilibrium and adsorption kinetics. Both kinetics and equilibrium of adsorption tests were proceeded in basic and acid medium. For a basic pH value (pH = 12), it was concluded the equilibrium was reached in about 3 h of experiment, the experimental qmax value was near 12 mg g−1, and the equilibrium data fitted the Langmuir model. On the other hand, for tests with pH = 2, the equilibrium was reached after 5 min of experiment, the experimental qmax value was over 185 mg g−1, and the equilibrium data fitted both the Langmuir and Freundlich models. Thus, the biochar produced via gasification of wood wastes appears to be a promising adsorbent for the removal of azo dyes from textile wastewater, especially when working at lower pH values. Also, for a 10-kg/h consumption of wood residue, approximately 10 kW of energy is generated and 1 kg of biochar is produced, which represents another advantage from the environmentally friendly point of view.

Graphical abstract


Biochar Wood waste Gasification Indosol black NF1200 Azo dye Textile industry Experimental design Adsorption 



Thanks are due to the Chemical Engineering Department of the Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE) and the Laboratory of Clean Technologies (LATECLIM), headed by Professor Dr. José Geraldo de Andrade Pacheco Filho, all located in Pernambuco (Brazil); to the Arconic Alumínio S/A image laboratory; to the Activated Carbon Laboratory—Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB); and to MSc Ana Maria Salgueiro Baptisttella for all the support.

Compliance with ethical standards

Disclosure statement

This manuscript has not been published yet, and is currently not under consideration for publication anywhere else.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Miguel Antônio Pires Kelm
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mário José da Silva Júnior
    • 2
  • Sávio Henrique de Barros Holanda
    • 2
  • Caroline Maria Bezerra de Araujo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Romero Barbosa de Assis Filho
    • 1
    • 3
  • Emerson Jaguaribe Freitas
    • 4
  • Diogo Rafael dos Santos
    • 4
  • Maurício Alves da Motta Sobrinho
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringUniversidade Federal de PernambucoRecifeBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Civil EngineeringUniversidade Federal de PernambucoRecifeBrazil
  3. 3.Instituto Federal de PernambucoRecifeBrazil
  4. 4.Activated Carbon LaboratoryUniversidade Federal da ParaíbaJoão PessoaBrazil

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