Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 1, pp 91–100 | Cite as

Pesticides as the drivers of neuropsychotic diseases, cancers, and teratogenicity among agro-workers as well as general public

  • Seema PatelEmail author
  • Sushree SangeetaEmail author
Review Article


The need to maximize agricultural productivity has made pesticides an indispensable part of current times. Farmers are unaware of the lurking consequences of the pesticide exposure, which endanger their health. It also puts the unsuspecting consumers in peril. The pesticides (from organophosphates, organochlorine, and carbamate class) disrupt the immune and hormonal signaling, causing recurrent inflammation, which leads to a wide array pathologies, including teratogenicity. Numerous farmers have fallen victim to neural disorders–driven suicides and lungs, prostate/breast cancer–caused untimely deaths. Green revolution which significantly escalated agricultural productivity is backfiring now. It is high time that environmental and agricultural authorities act to restrain the excessive usage of the detrimental chemicals and educate farmers regarding the crisis. This review discusses the biological mechanisms of pesticide-driven pathogenesis (such as the activation or inhibition of caspase, serine protease, acetylcholinesterase) and presents the pesticide-exposure-caused health deterioration in USA, India, and Africa. This holistic and critical review should be an eye-opener for general public, and a guide for researchers.


Pesticides Neural inflammation Neuropsychotic diseases Serine protease Acetylcholinesterase 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Abdo W, Hirata A, Sakai H, el-Sawak A, Nikami H, Yanai T (2013) Combined effects of organochlorine pesticides heptachlor and hexachlorobenzene on the promotion stage of hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 55:578–585. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmadi FA, Linseman DA, Grammatopoulos TN et al (2003) The pesticide rotenone induces caspase-3-mediated apoptosis in ventral mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons. J Neurochem 87:914–921. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aktar MW, Sengupta D, Chowdhury A (2009) Impact of pesticides use in agriculture: their benefits and hazards. Interdiscip Toxicol 2:1–12. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Atlas SA (2007) The renin-angiotensin aldosterone system: pathophysiological role and pharmacologic inhibition. J Manag Care Pharm 13:9–20. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aung T, Bisognano JD, Morgan MA (2010) Allergic respiratory disease as a potential co-morbidity for hypertension. Cardiol J 17:443–447Google Scholar
  6. Banerjee I, Tripathi S, As R, Sengupta P (2014) Pesticide use pattern among farmers in a rural district of West Bengal, India. J Nat Sci Biol Med 5:313. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bates GW, Legro RS (2013) Longterm management of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS). Mol Cell Endocrinol 373:91–97. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beecham JE, Seneff S (2016) Is there a link between autism and glyphosate-formulated herbicides? J Autism 3:1. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Behere PB, Bhise MC (2009) Farmers’ suicide: across culture. Indian J Psychiatry 51:242–243. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Blakemore J, Naftolin F (2016) Aromatase: contributions to physiology and disease in women and men. Physiology (Bethesda) 31:258–269. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brain RA, Solomon KR (2009) Comparison of the hazards posed to amphibians by the glyphosate spray control program versus the chemical and physical activities of coca production in Colombia. J Toxicol Environ Health A 72:937–948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Burow KR, Shelton JL, Dubrovsky NM (2008) Regional nitrate and pesticide trends in ground water in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, California. J Environ Qual 37:S249–S263. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cao S, Liu P, Zhu H, Gong H, Yao J, Sun Y, Geng G, Wang T, Feng S, Han M, Zhou J, Xu Y (2015) Extracellular acidification acts as a key modulator of neutrophil apoptosis and functions. PLoS One 10:e0137221. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carmichael SL, Yang W, Roberts E, Kegley SE, Brown TJ, English PB, Lammer EJ, Shaw GM (2016) Residential agricultural pesticide exposures and risks of selected birth defects among offspring in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Birth Defects Res Part A Clin Mol Teratol 106:27–35. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Casida JE (2010) Pest toxicology: the primary mechanisms of pesticide action. In: Hayes’ handbook of pesticide toxicology, pp 103–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chitra GA, Muraleedharan VR, Swaminathan T, Veeraraghavan D (2006) Use of pesticides and its impact on health of farmers in South India. Int J Occup Environ Health 12:228–233. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chowdhury AN, Banerjee S, Brahma A, Weiss MG (2007) Pesticide practices and suicide among farmers of the sundarban region in India. Food Nutr Bull 28:S381–S391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Christiansen SC, Schatz M, Yang S-J et al (2016) Hypertension and asthma: a comorbid relationship. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 4:76–81. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cocciadiferro L, Miceli V, Granata OM, Carruba G (2016) Merlin, the product of NF2 gene, is associated with aromatase expression and estrogen formation in human liver tissues and liver cancer cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 172:222–230. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cohen PG (2001) Aromatase, adiposity, aging and disease. The hypogonadal-metabolic-atherogenic-disease and aging connection. Med Hypotheses 56:702–708. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Colle D, Farina M, Ceccatelli S, Raciti M (2018) Paraquat and maneb exposure alters rat neural stem cell proliferation by inducing oxidative stress: new insights on pesticide-induced neurodevelopmental toxicity. Neurotox Res 34:1–14Google Scholar
  22. Colović MB, Krstić DZ, Lazarević-Pašti TD et al (2013) Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors: pharmacology and toxicology. Curr Neuropharmacol 11:315–335. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Costa LG, Giordano G, Guizzetti M, Vitalone A (2008) Neurotoxicity of pesticides: a brief review. Front Biosci 13:1240–1249. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Coussens LM, Werb Z (2002) Inflammation and cancer. Nature 420:860–867. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Crisan D, Carr J (2000) Angiotensin I-converting enzyme: genotype and disease associations. J Mol Diagn 2:105–115. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Crosnoe-Shipley LE, Elkelany OO, Rahnema CD, Kim ED (2015) Treatment of hypogonadotropic male hypogonadism: case-based scenarios. World J Nephrol 4:245–253. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Damalas C, Koutroubas S (2017) Farmers’ training on pesticide use is associated with elevated safety behavior. Toxics 5:19. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Demura M, Martin RM, Shozu M, Sebastian S, Takayama K, Hsu WT, Schultz RA, Neely K, Bryant M, Mendonca BB, Hanaki K, Kanzaki S, Rhoads DB, Misra M, Bulun SE (2007) Regional rearrangements in chromosome 15q21 cause formation of cryptic promoters for the CYP19 (aromatase) gene. Hum Mol Genet 16:2529–2541. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Denkyirah EK, Okoffo ED, Adu DT, Aziz AA, Ofori A, Denkyirah EK (2016) Modeling Ghanaian cocoa farmers’ decision to use pesticide and frequency of application: the case of Brong Ahafo Region. Springerplus 5.
  30. Diamanti-Kandarakis E, Bourguignon J-P, Giudice LC, Hauser R, Prins GS, Soto AM, Zoeller RT, Gore AC (2009) Endocrine-disrupting chemicals: an Endocrine Society scientific statement. Endocr Rev 30:293–342. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Do DC, Zhao Y, Gao P (2016) Cockroach allergen exposure and risk of asthma. Allergy 71:463–474. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dongre AR, Deshmukh PR (2012) Farmers’ suicides in the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, India: a qualitative exploration of their causes. J Inj Violence Res 4:2–6. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Drenjančević-Perić I, Jelaković B, Lombard JH, Kunert MP, Kibel A, Gros M (2011) High-salt diet and hypertension: focus on the renin-angiotensin system. Kidney Blood Press Res 34:1–11. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Eddleston M, Buckley NA, Eyer P, Dawson AH (2008) Management of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Lancet (London, England) 371:597–607. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Egbuta C, Lo J, Ghosh D (2014) Mechanism of inhibition of estrogen biosynthesis by azole fungicides. Endocrinology 155:4622–4628. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Engel LS (2005) Pesticide use and breast cancer risk among farmers’ wives in the agricultural health study. Am J Epidemiol 161:121–135. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Faglia G, Arosio M, Porretti S (2000) Delayed closure of epiphyseal cartilages induced by the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole. Would it help short children grow up? J Endocrinol Investig 23:721–723. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fommei E, Turci R, Ripoli A, Balzan S, Bianchi F, Morelli L, Coi A (2017) Evidence for persistent organochlorine pollutants in the human adrenal cortex. J Appl Toxicol 37:1091–1097. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gallegos CE, Baier CJ, Bartos M, Bras C, Domínguez S, Mónaco N, Gumilar F, Giménez MS, Minetti A (2018) Perinatal glyphosate-based herbicide exposure in rats alters brain antioxidant status, glutamate and acetylcholine metabolism and affects recognition memory. Neurotox Res 34:363–374. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. García-Fernández R, Perbandt M, Rehders D, Ziegelmüller P, Piganeau N, Hahn U, Betzel C, Chávez MÁ, Redecke L (2015) Three-dimensional structure of a Kunitz-type inhibitor in complex with an elastase-like enzyme. J Biol Chem 290:14154–14165.
  41. Gasteiger E, Gattiker A, Hoogland C et al (2003) ExPASy: the proteomics server for in-depth protein knowledge and analysis. Nucleic Acids Res 31:3784–3788. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gessl A, Lemmens-Gruber R, Kautzky-Willer A (2012) Thyroid disorders. Handb Exp Pharmacol:361–386.
  43. Gewin V (2008) Pesticide suspected in bee deaths banned. Front Ecol Environ 6:294Google Scholar
  44. Giácoman-Vallejos G, Lizarraga-Castro I, Ponce-Caballero C, González-Sánchez A, Hernández-Núñez E (2018) Presence of DDT and lindane in a karstic groundwater aquifer in Yucatan, Mexico. Groundw Monit Remediat 38:68–78. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gohara DW, Di Cera E (2011) Allostery in trypsin-like proteases suggests new therapeutic strategies. Trends Biotechnol 29:577–585. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Goldner WS, Sandler DP, Yu F, Hoppin JA, Kamel F, LeVan TD (2010) Pesticide use and thyroid disease among women in the Agricultural Health Study. Am J Epidemiol 171:455–464. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Goldner WS, Sandler DP, Yu F, Shostrom V, Hoppin JA, Kamel F, LeVan TD (2013) Hypothyroidism and pesticide use among male private pesticide applicators in the agricultural health study. J Occup Environ Med 55:1171–1178. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gonzales PH, Mezzomo LC, Ferreira NP, Roehe AV, Kohek MBF, Oliveira MC (2015) Aromatase P450 expression in human pituitary adenomas. Neuropathology 35:16–23. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gupta RC, Sachana M, Mukherjee IM, et al (2018) Organophosphates and carbamates. In: Veterinary toxicology: basic and clinical principles, Third edn. Pp 495–508.
  50. Hefetz-Sela S, Scherer PE (2013) Adipocytes: impact on tumor growth and potential sites for therapeutic intervention. Pharmacol Ther 138:197–210. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ho S-M (2003) Estrogen, progesterone and epithelial ovarian cancer. Reprod Biol Endocrinol 1:73. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hovey RC, Aimo L (2010) Diverse and active roles for adipocytes during mammary gland growth and function. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 15:279–290. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hovnanian A (2013) Netherton syndrome: skin inflammation and allergy by loss of protease inhibition. Cell Tissue Res 351:289–300. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Huang G, London J (2012) Mapping cumulative environmental effects, social vulnerability, and health in the San Joaquin Valley, California. Am J Public Health 102:830–832. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hwang H, Zhang J, Chung KA et al (2010) Glycoproteomics in neurodegenerative diseases. Mass Spectrom Rev 29:79–125. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Iravanian S, Dudley SC (2008) The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and cardiac arrhythmias. Heart Rhythm 5:S12–S17. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Izawa M, Inoue M, Osaki M, Ito H, Harada T, Terakawa N, Ikeguchi M (2008) Cytochrome P450 aromatase gene (CYP19) expression in gastric cancer. Gastric Cancer 11:103–110. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Jallow MFA, Awadh DG, Albaho MS et al (2017) Pesticide knowledge and safety practices among farm workers in Kuwait: results of a survey. Int J Environ Res Public Health.
  59. Jenny L, Ajjan R, King R, Thiel S, Schroeder V (2015) Plasma levels of mannan-binding lectin-associated serine proteases MASP-1 and MASP-2 are elevated in type 1 diabetes and correlate with glycaemic control. Clin Exp Immunol 180:227–232. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Jiang X (2014) Harnessing the immune system for the treatment of breast cancer. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 15:1–15. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Jirásková-Vaníčková J, Ettrich R, Vorlová B et al (2011) Inhibition of human serine racemase, an emerging target for medicinal chemistry. Curr Drug Targets 12:1037–1055. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kennedy J, King L (2014) The political economy of farmers’ suicides in India: indebted cash-crop farmers with marginal landholdings explain state-level variation in suicide rates. Glob Health 10:16. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kesavachandran CN, Fareed M, Pathak MK, et al (2009) Adverse health effects of pesticides in agrarian populations of developing countries. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol  200:33–52Google Scholar
  64. Khush GS (2001) Green revolution: the way forward. Nat Rev Genet 2:815–822. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Landgren O, Kyle RA, Hoppin JA, Beane Freeman LE, Cerhan JR, Katzmann JA, Rajkumar SV, Alavanja MC (2009) Pesticide exposure and risk of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance in the Agricultural Health Study. Blood 113:6386–6391. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Levitt T (2011) The film that stood up to banana giant {D}ole over pesticide poisoning (and won). Ecologist [online]Google Scholar
  67. Li W-G, Xu T-L (2015) Acid-sensing ion channels: a novel therapeutic target for pain and anxiety. Curr Pharm Des 21:885–894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Li Q, Kobayashi M, Kawada T (2015) Carbamate pesticide-induced apoptosis in human T lymphocytes. Int J Environ Res Public Health 12:3633–3645. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Li M-H, Leng T-D, Feng X-C, Yang T, Simon RP, Xiong ZG (2016) Modulation of acid-sensing Ion channel 1a by intracellular pH and its role in ischemic stroke. J Biol Chem 291:18370–18383. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lionetto MG, Caricato R, Calisi A, Giordano ME, Schettino T (2013) Acetylcholinesterase as a biomarker in environmental and occupational medicine: new insights and future perspectives. Biomed Res Int 2013:321213–321218. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Marrs TC, Rice P, Vale JA (2006) The role of oximes in the treatment of nerve agent poisoning in civilian casualties. Toxicol Rev 25:297–323. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Mathew P, Jose A, Alex RG, Mohan VR (2015) Chronic pesticide exposure: health effects among pesticide sprayers in Southern India. Indian J Occup Environ Med 19:95–101. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Meany DL, Chan DW (2011) Aberrant glycosylation associated with enzymes as cancer biomarkers. Clin Proteomics 8:7. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Mehedintu C, Plotogea MN, Ionescu S, Antonovici M (2014) Endometriosis still a challenge. J Med Life 7:349–357Google Scholar
  75. Metwalley KA, Farghaly HS (2013) Aromatase excess syndrome presenting with prepubertal gynecomastia in an Egyptian child with type 1 neurofibromatosis. Indian J Hum Genet 19:472–474. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mohanty MK, Behera BK, Jena SK, Srikanth S, Mogane C, Samal S, Behera AA (2013) Knowledge attitude and practice of pesticide use among agricultural workers in Puducherry, South India. J Forensic Legal Med 20:1028–1031. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Naidoo S, London L, Burdorf A, Naidoo R, Kromhout H (2011) Spontaneous miscarriages and infant deaths among female farmers in rural South Africa. Scand J Work Environ Health 37:227–236. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Navar LG (2014) Physiology: hemodynamics, endothelial function, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, sympathetic nervous system. J Am Soc Hypertens 8:519–524. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Neupane D, Jørs E, Brandt L (2014) Pesticide use, erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase level and self-reported acute intoxication symptoms among vegetable farmers in Nepal: a cross-sectional study. Environ Health 13:98. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Noris M, Remuzzi G (2013) Overview of complement activation and regulation. Semin Nephrol 33:479–492. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Patel S (2017a) A critical review on serine protease: key immune manipulator and pathology mediator. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 45:579–591. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Patel S (2017b) Inflammasomes, the cardinal pathology mediators are activated by pathogens, allergens and mutagens: a critical review with focus on NLRP3. Biomed Pharmacother 92:819–825. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Patel S (2017c) Stressor-driven extracellular acidosis as tumor inducer via aberrant enzyme activation: a review on the mechanisms and possible prophylaxis. Gene 626:209–214. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Patel S (2017d) Disruption of aromatase homeostasis as the cause of a multiplicity of ailments: a comprehensive review. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 168:19–25. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Patel S (2018) Breast cancer: lesser-known facets and hypotheses. Biomed Pharmacother 98:499–506. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Patel S, Akhtar N (2017) Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs): the quintessential “offense and defense” molecules are more than antimicrobials. Biomed Pharmacother 95:1276–1283. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Patel S, Homaei A, Raju AB, Meher BR (2018) Estrogen: the necessary evil for human health, and ways to tame it. Biomed Pharmacother 102:403–411. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Pathak-Gandhi N, Vaidya ADB (2016) Management of Parkinson’s disease in Ayurveda: medicinal plants and adjuvant measures. J Ethnopharmacol 197:46–51. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Pazaiti A, Fentiman IS (2011) Basal phenotype breast cancer: implications for treatment and prognosis. Women's Health (Lond Engl) 7:181–202. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Rajamäki K, Nordström T, Nurmi K, Åkerman KEO, Kovanen PT, Öörni K, Eklund KK (2013) Extracellular acidosis is a novel danger signal alerting innate immunity via the NLRP3 inflammasome. J Biol Chem 288:13410–13419. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rastogi S, Tripathi S, Ravishanker D (2010) A study of neurologic symptoms on exposure to organophosphate pesticides in the children of agricultural workers. Indian J Occup Environ Med 14:54. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Reeve A, Simcox E, Turnbull D (2014) Ageing and Parkinson’s disease: why is advancing age the biggest risk factor? Ageing Res Rev 14:19–30. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Rendón von Osten J, Epomex C, Tinoco-Ojanguren R et al (2004) Effect of pesticide exposure on acetylcholinesterase activity in subsistence farmers from Campeche, Mexico. Arch Environ Health 59:418–425. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Richard SA, Frank EA, D’Souza CJM (2013) Correlation between cholinesterase and paraoxonase 1 activities:case series of pesticide poisoning subjects. Bioimpacts 3:119–122. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Richardson JR, Roy A, Shalat SL, von Stein RT, Hossain MM, Buckley B, Gearing M, Levey AI, German DC (2014) Elevated serum pesticide levels and risk for Alzheimer disease. JAMA Neurol 71:284–290. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sands JM, Layton HE (2009) The physiology of urinary concentration: an update. Semin Nephrol 29:178–195. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Santin AP, Furlanetto TW (2011) Role of estrogen in thyroid function and growth regulation. J Thyroid Res 2011:875125–875127. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Schwalfenberg GK (2012) The alkaline diet: is there evidence that an alkaline pH diet benefits health? J Environ Public Health 2012:727630–727637. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Schwartz NA, von Glascoe CA, Torres V, Ramos L, Soria-Delgado C (2015) "Where they (live, work and) spray": pesticide exposure, childhood asthma and environmental justice among Mexican-American farmworkers. Health Place 32:83–92. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Shakeel MK, George PS, Jose J et al (2010) Pesticides and breast cancer risk: a comparison between developed and developing countries. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 11:173–180Google Scholar
  101. Silman I, Sussman JL (2008) Acetylcholinesterase: how is structure related to function? Chem Biol Interact 175:3–10. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Simpson ER, Clyne C, Rubin G, Boon WC, Robertson K, Britt K, Speed C, Jones M (2002) Aromatase--a brief overview. Annu Rev Physiol 64:93–127. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Sirmans SM, Pate KA (2013) Epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of polycystic ovary syndrome. Clin Epidemiol 6:1–13. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Soh UJK, Dores MR, Chen B, Trejo J (2010) Signal transduction by protease-activated receptors. Br J Pharmacol 160:191–203. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Strelitz J, Engel LS, Keifer MC (2014) Blood acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase as biomarkers of cholinesterase depression among pesticide handlers. Occup Environ Med 71:842–847. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Sur D, Yap SMS, Demayo CG (2015) Advances in environmental biology. Adv Environ Biol 9:134–142. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Taetzsch T, Block ML (2013) Pesticides, microglial NOX2, and Parkinson’s disease. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 27:137–149. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Taghavian F, Vaezi G, Abdollahi M, Malekirad AA (2016) Comparative toxicological study between exposed and non-exposed farmers to organophosphorus pesticides. Cell J 18:89–96Google Scholar
  109. Tammen SA, Friso S, Choi S-W (2013) Epigenetics: the link between nature and nurture. Mol Asp Med 34:753–764. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Toe AM, Ouedraogo M, Ouedraogo R, Ilboudo S, Guissou PI (2013) Pilot study on agricultural pesticide poisoning in Burkina Faso. Interdiscip Toxicol 6:185–191. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Trivanović D, Jauković A, Krstić J, Nikolić S, Okić Djordjević I, Kukolj T, Obradović H, Mojsilović S, Ilić V, Santibanez JF, Bugarski D (2016) Inflammatory cytokines prime adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells to enhance malignancy of MCF-7 breast cancer cells via transforming growth factor-β1. IUBMB Life 68:190–200. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Verdecchia P, Angeli F, Mazzotta G et al (2008) The renin angiotensin system in the development of cardiovascular disease: role of aliskiren in risk reduction. Vasc Health Risk Manag 4:971–981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Verma MK, Miki Y, Abe K, Nagasaki S, Niikawa H, Suzuki S, Kondo T, Sasano H (2012) Co-expression of estrogen receptor beta and aromatase in Japanese lung cancer patients: gender-dependent clinical outcome. Life Sci 91:800–808. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Vicente da MGH, Smith KM (2014) Syntheses and functionalizations of porphyrin macrocycles. Curr Org Synth 11:3–28. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Wang X-J, Cao Q, Zhang Y, Su X-D (2015) Activation and regulation of caspase-6 and its role in neurodegenerative diseases. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 55:553–572. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Watabe M, Nakaki T (2007) Mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone-elicited dopamine redistribution from vesicles to cytosol in human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 323:499–507. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Wemmie JA, Taugher RJ, Kreple CJ (2013) Acid-sensing ion channels in pain and disease. Nat Rev Neurosci 14:461–471. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Williams CB, Yeh ES, Soloff AC et al (2016) Tumor-associated macrophages: unwitting accomplices in breast cancer malignancy. Breast Cancer 2:15025. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Wojtukiewicz MZ, Hempel D, Sierko E, Tucker SC, Honn KV (2015) Protease-activated receptors (PARs)--biology and role in cancer invasion and metastasis. Cancer Metastasis Rev 34:775–796. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Wong AKF, Howie J, Petrie JR, Lang CC (2009) AMP-activated protein kinase pathway: a potential therapeutic target in cardiometabolic disease. Clin Sci (Lond) 116:607–620. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Yatabe J, Yoneda M, Yatabe MS, Watanabe T, Felder RA, Jose PA, Sanada H (2011) Angiotensin III stimulates aldosterone secretion from adrenal gland partially via angiotensin II type 2 receptor but not angiotensin II type 1 receptor. Endocrinology 152:1582–1588. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Zarn JA, Brüschweiler BJ, Schlatter JR (2003a) Azole fungicides affect mammalian steroidogenesis by inhibiting sterol 14α-demethylase and aromatase. Environ Health Perspect 111:255–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Zarn JA, Brüschweiler BJ, Schlatter JR (2003b) Azole fungicides affect mammalian steroidogenesis by inhibiting sterol 14 alpha-demethylase and aromatase. Environ Health Perspect 111:255–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bioinformatics and Medical Informatics Research CenterSan Diego State UniversitySan DiegoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Ecology and Environmental SciencesPondicherry UniversityPuducherryIndia

Personalised recommendations