Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 28, pp 27858–27876 | Cite as

Carbon tetrachloride induced hepato/renal toxicity in experimental mice: antioxidant potential of Egyptian Salvia officinalis L essential oil

  • Maha A. Fahmy
  • Kawthar A. DiabEmail author
  • Negm S. Abdel-Samie
  • Enayat A. Omara
  • Zeinab M. Hassan
Research Article


The present research designed to assess the protective role of Salvia officinalis essential oil (SO) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver and kidney damage in mice. This is evidenced by estimation of antiradical scavenging activity of SO using DPPH assay, biochemical markers, histological investigation of liver and kidney sections, and comet assay. Mice were given CCl4 (1.2 mL/kg for 24 h or 0.8 mL/kg for 2 weeks, 3 times/week) and with or without SO (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mL/kg, for 2 week, 5 times/week). The findings demonstrated that both acute and subacute treatment with CCl4 alone had adverse side effects on liver and kidney of mice. These effects were evidenced by a significant increase in serum hepatic enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, and G-GT), bilirubin, and renal function markers (blood urea, creatinine). Toxic effect of CCl4 was accompanied by a decline in the serum total protein, albumin, globulin, and prothrombin (%). CCl4 induced oxidative stress as evidenced by increasing serum lipid peroxidation (LPO) along with decreasing serum total glutathione S transferase (GST). A remarkable increase in hepatic DNA strand breakages and histopathological distortion in liver and kidney specimens were observed in CCl4-intoxicated groups. Ultrastructurally, hepatocytes exhibited irregular nuclei, vacuolated cytoplasm, and distorted microorganelles. Essential oil form S. officinalis possessed antiradical scavenging (EC50 = 4602 μg/mL) lower than ascorbic acid (EC50 = 5.9 μg/mL). This oil was effectively exhibited hepato-nephroprotective activity especially at its higher concentrations in co-treated groups (SO plus CCl4). The activity of SO was associated with lowering the liver enzymes, bilirubin, urea, and creatinine, along with increasing total protein, albumin, globulin, and prothrombin. The increase in GST content and the decrease in LPO and DNA breakage levels, alongside repairing the histo-architectural distortions further confirmed the protective activity of SO. SO is a potential candidate for counteracting hepato/renal injury associating CCl4. This effect may occur via antioxidant defense mechanism which in part related to the complexity of its chemical constituents.


CCl4 Salvia officinalis essential oil DPPH Hepato/renal protection Biochemical parameters Histopathology Comet assay 



This research work was funded by in-house project (No. 11010345) for the 11th research plan (2017–2019), National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Genetics and Cytology DepartmentNational Research Centre (NRC)CairoEgypt
  2. 2.Pathology DepartmentNational Research Centre (NRC)CairoEgypt
  3. 3.Natural Compounds DepartmentNational Research Centre (NRC)CairoEgypt

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