Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 26, Issue 14, pp 13746–13754 | Cite as

Organic carbon content and humus composition after application aluminum sulfate and rice straw to soda saline-alkaline soil

  • Xingmin Zhao
  • Menglong Zhu
  • Xinxin Guo
  • Hongbin WangEmail author
  • Biao Sui
  • Lanpo Zhao
Sustainable Environmental Management


The soil organic carbon accumulation in soda saline-alkaline soil and the humus composition changes with application of aluminum sulfate and rice straw were investigated by the controlled simulative experiments in laboratory. For evaluating the amelioration effect, organic carbon content and humus composition in soda saline-alkaline soil were investigated with different application amounts of rice straw and aluminum sulfate. Potassium dichromate oxidation titration (exogenous heat) method and Kumada method were used to analyze the contents of organic carbon and humus composition, respectively. The transformation of soil organic matter in the saline-alkali soil during the amelioration has been clarified in this paper. The results demonstrated that the contents of soil organic carbon were significantly increased (13–92%) with different application amounts of rice straw and aluminum sulfate. The contents of free fraction and combined fraction of humus and their compositions (humic acid and fulvic acid) were increased with different application amounts of rice straw. The free fraction of humus was increased more dramatically. Due to aluminum sulfate application, free fraction of humus and humic acid (HA) was transformed to combined fraction partially. Free HA was changed to be P type with rice straw application. With aluminum sulfate application, free form of HA was changed from type P to type Rp. For rice straw application, combined HA only was transferred within the area of type A. Aluminum sulfate addition had no significant effect on the type of combined form of HA. With the same amount of rice straw application, the contents of soil organic carbon were increased by increasing the amount of aluminum sulfate application. Both rice straw and aluminum sulfate applications could reduce the humification degree of free and combined fraction of HA. According to the types of HA, it could be concluded that humus became younger and renewed due to the application of rice straw and aluminum sulfate.


Aluminum sulfate/rice straw Soda saline-alkaline soil Soil organic carbon Humus composition HA type 


Funding information

This research work was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (funding number 41403077) and Special Grand National Science-Technology Project (funding number 2014ZX07201-011).


  1. Albiach R, Canet R, Pomares F, Ingelmo F (2001) Organic matter components and aggregate stability after the application different amendments to a horticultural soil. Bioresour Technol 76:125–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bao SD (2000) Soil and agrochemistry analysis. China Agricultural Press, Beijing In ChineseGoogle Scholar
  3. Cheng LL, Wen QX, Yuan LS (1990) The effect of soil condition on the newly formed humus. Soils 22:11 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  4. Chi CM, Wang ZC (2010) Characterizing salt-affected soils of Songnen Plain using saturated paste and 1:5 soil-to-water extraction methods. Arid Land Res Manage 24:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chi CM, Zhao CW, Sun XJ, Wang ZC (2012) Reclamation of saline-sodic soil properties and improvement of rice (Oriza sativa L.) growth and yield using desulfurized gypsum in the west of Songnen Plain, Northeast China. Geoderma 187:24–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dou S, Li K, Cui JT (2008) Advancement in the study on formation, transformation and structural characteristics of soil humic substances. Acta Pedologica Sin 45:1148–1157 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  7. Edwards AP, Bremner JM (1967) Microaggregates in soils. J Soil Sci 18:64–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Farasat Z, Panahi R, Mokhtarani B (2017) Time course study of coagulation-flocculation process using aluminum sulfate. Water Conserv Manag 1(2):07–09CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fares A, Abbas F, Ahmad A, Deenik JL, Safeeq M (2008) Response of selected soil physical and hydrologic properties to manure amendment rates, levels, and types. Soil Sci 173:522–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fernández JM, Plaza C, García-Gil JC, Polo A (2009) Biochemical properties and barley yield in a semiarid Mediterranean soil amended with two kinds of sewage sludge. Appl Soil Ecol 42:18–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ghassemi F, Jakeman AJ, Nix HA (1995) Stalinization of land and water resources: human causes, extent, management and case studies. The Australian National University/CAB International, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  12. Havlin JL, Kissel DE, Maddux LD, Claassen MM, Long JH (1990) Crop rotation and tillage effects on soil organic carbon and nitrogen. Soil Sci Soc Am J 54:448–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. He HS, Wang WJ, Zhu H, Yuan GZ, Zhong HZ, Yua G, Hui NX, Xing YY (2008) Influences of addition of different krilium in saline-sodic soil on the seed germination and growth of cabbage. Acta Ecol Sin 28:5338–5346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Inoue K, Zhao LP, Huang PM (1990) Adsorption of humic substances by hydroxyaluminum and hydroxyaluminosilicate-montmorillonite complexes. Soil Sci Soc Am J 54:1166–1172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ismail THT, Adnan NAF, Samah MAA (2017) The accumulation of Fe, Pb, Zn, Ni and Cd in Nerita lineata and Thais bitubercularis obtained from Tanjung Harapan and Teluk Kemang, Malaysia. J CleanWAS 1(1):6–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kalbitz K, Schwesig D, Rethemeyer J, Maztner E (2005) Stabization of dissolved organic matter by sorption to the mineral soil. Soil Biol Biochem 37:1319–1331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kononova MM, Alexandrova IV (1973) Formation of HAs during plant reside humification and their nature. Geodema 9:157–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kumada K (1965) Studies on the colour of HAs. Part1: on the concepts of humic substances and humification. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 11:11–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kumada K (1987) Chemistry of soil organic matter. Sci Total Environ 73:288Google Scholar
  20. Kumada K, Sato O, Ohsumi Y, Ohta S (1967) Humus composition of mountain soil in central Japan with special reference to the distribution of P type HA. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 13:151–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Le GC, Angers DA, Leterme P, Aubry SM (2011) Differential and successive effects of residue quality and soil mineral N on water stable aggregation during crop residue decomposition. Soil Biol Biochem 43:1955–1960CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Li B, Wang Z, Liang Z (2007) Relationship between parameters of sodic saline soils in Da’an city of Jilin province. Chin J Soil Sci 38:443–446 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  23. Li XJ (2000) The alkili-saline land and agricultural sustainable development of the Western Songnen Plain in China. Sci Geogr Sin 20:51–55Google Scholar
  24. Lian Y, Wang J, Tu G, Ren H, Shen B, Zhi K, Li S, Gao Z (2010) Quantitative assessment of impacts of regional climate and human activities on saline-alkali land changes: a case study of Qian’an County, Jilin Province. Chin Geogra Sci 20:91–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lin NF, Bounlom V, Tang J (2005) Study on the relation between the formation of saline-alkali soil and the neotectonic movement. Global Geol 24:282–288Google Scholar
  26. Luo JQ, Wang LL, Li QS, Zhang QK, He BY, Wang Y, Qin LP, Li SS (2015) Improvement of hard saline-sodic soils using polymeric aluminum ferric sulfate (PAFS). Soil Tillage Res 149:12–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Metternicht G (2001) Assessing temporal and spatial changes of salinity using fuzzy logic, remote sensing and GIS: foundations of expert system. Ecol Model 144:163–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pang HC, Li YY, Yang JS, Liang YS (2010) Effect of brackish water irrigation and straw mulching on soil salinity and crop yields under monsoonal climatic conditions. Agr Water Manage 97:1971–1977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Powlson DS, Bhogal A, Chambers BJ, Coleman K, Macdonald AJ, Goulding KWT, Whitmore AP (2012) The potential to increase soil carbon stocks through reduced tillage or organic material additions in England and Wales: a case study. Agric Ecosyst Environ 146:23–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Powlson DS, Riche AB, Coleman K, Glendining MJ, Whitmore AP (2008) Carbon sequestration in European soils through straw in corporation: limitations and alternatives. Waste Manag 28:741–746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rasmussen PE, Allmaras RR, Rohde CR, Roager NC (1980) Crop residue influences on soil carbon and nitrogen in a wheat-fallow system. Soil Sci Am J 40:596–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rasool R, Kukal SS, Hira GS (2008) Soil organic carbon and physical properties as affected by long-term application of FYM and inorganic fertilizers in maize-wheat system. Soil Tillage Res 101:31–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Satoshi N, Mario H, Eiji M, Tamura K, Higashi T (2007) Humus composition of Amazonian Dark Earths in the Middle Amazon, Brazil. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 53:229–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Scheel T, Dörfler C, Kalbitz K (2007) Precipitation of dissolved organic matter by aluminum stabilizes carbon in acidic forest soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 71:64–74Google Scholar
  35. Schwertmann U, Wagner F, Knicker H (2005) Ferrihydrite–humic associations: magnetic hyperfine interactions. Soil Sci Soc Am J 69:1009–1015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Silva CC, Guido ML, Ceballos JM, Marsch R, Dendooven L (2008) Production of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide in alkaline saline soil of Texcoco at different water content amended with urea: a laboratory study. Soil Biol Biochem 40:1813–1822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tadashi T, Randy AD (2016) Nature, properties and function of aluminum-humus complexes in volcanic soils. Geoderma 263:110–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Thomsen IK, Christensen BT (2004) Yields of wheat and soil carbon and nitrogen contents following long-term incorporation of barley straw and ryegrass catch crops. Soil Use Manag 20:432–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Upendra MS, Zchary NS, Eimson ZN, Tazisong IA, Reddy KC (2008) Tillage, cropping systems, and nitrogen fertilizer source effects on soil carbon sequestration and fractions. J Environ Qual 37:880–888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Volikov AB, Kholodov VA, Kulikova NA, Philippova OI, Ponomarenko SA, Lasareva EV, Parfyonova AM, Hatfield K, Perminova IV (2016) Silanized humic substances act as hydrophobic modifiers of soil separates inducing formation of water-stable aggregates in soils. Catena 137:229–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Von LM, Leifeld J, Kainz M, Knabner IK, Munch JC (2002) Indications for soil organic matter quality in soils under different management. Geoderma 105:243–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wang FS, Tian ZC (2002) The groundwater effect in the process of soil salinization of the Songnen Plain, Jilin province. Jilin Geol 21:79–87Google Scholar
  43. Wang, J., Zhao, L.P., Liu, H.Q., Bin, W.H., Yu, W., Ling, W.Y., 2004. Effect of two fertilization on composition of humus in organo-mineral complex from chernozem. J Soil Water Conserv 18, 53–56 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  44. Wang L, Seki K, Miyazaki T, Ishihama Y (2009) The causes of soil alkalinization in the Songnen Plain of Northeast China. Paddy Water Environ 7:259–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wang RZ, Gao Q, Chen Q (2003) Effects of climatic change on biomass and biomass allocation in Leymuschinensis (Poaceae) along the North-East China Transect (NECT). J Arid Environ 54:653–665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wang RZ, Li JD (1995) Dynamic population models of the ecological dominance during the deterioration ofLeymuschinensis grassland. Acta Phytoecol Sin 19:170–174 (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  47. Watanabe A, Kawasaki S, Kitamura S, Yoshida S (2007) Temporal changes in HAs in cultivated soils with continuous manure application. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 53:535–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wei ZM, Zhou LR, Gu SY (2003) Effect of organic manure on fulvic acid and HA of combined humus forms in wind blown soil. J Northeast Agr Univ 34:179–183 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  49. Wong A (2017) Natural treatment technology for cleaning wastewater. Water Conserv Manage 1(1):07–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wright AI, Hons FM (2005) Carbon and nitrogen sequestration and soil aggregation under sorghum cropping sequences. Biol Fert Soils 41:95–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wu LZ, Li QS (2003) Research of mechanism of saline desertification in Western Songnen Plain. Soil Water Conserv 17:79–81Google Scholar
  52. Yang XM, Zhang XP, Fang HJ (2003) Long-term effects of fertilization on soil organic carbon changes in continuous corn of Northeast China: Roth C model simulations. Environ Manag 32:459–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Zhang JB, Yang JS, Yao RJ, Yu SP, Li FR, Hou XJ (2014) The effects of farmyard manure and mulch on soil physical properties in a reclaimed coastal tidal flat salt-affected soil. J Integr Agr 13:1782–1790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Zhang XF, Xin XL, Zhu AN, Jiabaoa Z, Wenlianga Y (2017) Effects of tillage and residue managements on organic C accumulation and soil aggregation in a sandy loam soil of the North China Plain. Catena 156:176–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Zhang, Y.L., Sun, C.X., Chen, Z.H., Li, D.P., Liu, X.B., Chen, L.J., Wu, Z.J., Du, J.X., 2010. Analysis of soil humus and components after 26 years’ fertilization by infrared spectroscopy method. Spectrosc Spect Anal 30, 1210–1213 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  56. Zhao, L.P., Feng, J., Wang, Y., 2012. Theoretical and technological problems in the development of planting paddy in saline-alkali land of Songnen plain. J Jilin Agr Univ 34, 237–241 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  57. Zhao LP, Wang Y, Feng J (2013) Improvement and utilization of soda saline-alkaline soil in Songnen Plain: theory and technology. Science Press, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  58. Zhao XM, He L, Zhang ZD (2016) Simulation of accumulation and mineralization (CO2 release) of organic carbon in chernozem under different straw return ways after corn harvesting. Soil Tillage Res 156:148–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Bahmani M, Noorzad A, Hamedi J, Sali F (2017) The role of bacillus pasteurii on the change of parameters of sands according to temperature compresion and wind erosion resistance. J CleanWAS 1(2):1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Jalal KCA, John A, Hassan B, Sheikh I, Shahbudin S, NorHafiza YAA (2017) Study on physicochemical parameters and distribution of phytoplankton in Kuantan estuary, Pahang. Environ Ecosys Sci 1(1):08–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hejazi SM, Lotfi F, Fashandi H, Alirezazadeh A (2017) Serishm: an eco-friendly and biodegradable flame retardant for fabrics. Environ Ecosys Sci 1(2):05–08CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rehman R, Khan A, Rashid H, Nasir A (2017) Performance evaluation of fly ash and red brick dust for recovery of chromium from tannery wastewater by adsorption method. Earth Sci. Pakistan 1(1):21–24Google Scholar
  63. Yasin H, Usman M, Rashid H, Nasir DA, Randhawa DIA (2017) Alternative approaches for solid waste management: a case study in Faisalabad, Pakistan. Earth Sci Pakistan 1(2):04–06CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xingmin Zhao
    • 1
  • Menglong Zhu
    • 1
  • Xinxin Guo
    • 2
  • Hongbin Wang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Biao Sui
    • 1
  • Lanpo Zhao
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Resource and Environment, Key Laboratory of Soil Resource Sustainable Utilization for Jilin Province Commodity Grain BasesJilin Agricultural UniversityChangchunChina
  2. 2.Faculty of Engineering and Green TechnologyUniversity Tunku Abdul RahmanKamparMalaysia

Personalised recommendations