Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 19, pp 18540–18547 | Cite as

Changes in the nutritional composition of maize flour due to Tribolium castaneum infestation and application of carbon dioxide to manage this pest

  • Khalid MehmoodEmail author
  • Mureed Husain
  • Muhammad Aslam
  • Muhammad Shoaib Ahmedani
  • Azhar Mehmood Aulakh
  • Farid Asif Shaheen
Research Article


Maize flour was infested with fresh emerged Tribolium castaneum adults, and its nutritional composition was evaluated after 0, 45, and 90 days of the infestation. Furthermore, 99% carbon dioxide was applied to different developmental stages of T. castaneum for its management. There were six treatments and five replicates; for each replicate, maize flour (150 g) was taken in a 250-ml plastic jar container, insects were released in the flour, and jars were placed into the incubator at a temperature of 28 ± 1 °C, 60 ± 5% RH. Similarly, the application of 99% CO2 was done with four exposure times of 12, 24, 48, and 72 h, at 35 °C 65 ± 5% RH. Present results showed major fluctuations in the nutritive composition of maize flour. Increase in the moisture, fat, fiber, protein, and ash contents was directly proportional to the increase in infestation level and time, contrary to the depletion of carbohydrates and total weight loss. The results of CO2 treatment indicated that pupa was the most resilient stage as compared with larvae and adult stage. The observed susceptibility order was as follows: adult > larvae > pupae. The maximum mortality of adult, larval, and pupal stages was recorded after 24, 48, and 72 h of CO2 application, respectively. These findings might be helpful to develop an ecofriendly technique to manage this crucial pest.


Tribolium castaneum Infestation Maize flour Nutritional composition Temperature CO2 



The author would like to thank the Entomology Department of Pir Meh Ali Shah, University of Arid Agriculture Rawalpindi, for their support during the completion of this project.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Khalid Mehmood
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mureed Husain
    • 2
  • Muhammad Aslam
    • 1
  • Muhammad Shoaib Ahmedani
    • 3
  • Azhar Mehmood Aulakh
    • 4
  • Farid Asif Shaheen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EntomologyPir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture UniversityRawalpindiPakistan
  2. 2.Department of Plant Protection, College of Food and Agriculture SciencesKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.College of DentistryKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  4. 4.Arid Zone Research InstituteBhakkar (AZRI)Pakistan

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