Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 18, pp 17620–17633 | Cite as

Sedimentary chronology reinterpreted from Changshou Lake of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area reveals natural and anthropogenic controls on sediment production

  • Raheel Anjum
  • Qiang Tang
  • Adrian L. Collins
  • Jinzhang Gao
  • Yi Long
  • Xinbao Zhang
  • Xiubin He
  • Zhonglin Shi
  • Anbang Wen
  • Jie Wei
Research Article
  • 228 Downloads

Abstract

Sedimentary archives preserved in geomorphic sinks provide records of historical sediment dynamics and its related natural and anthropogenic controls. This study reinterpreted sedimentary processes in Changshou Lake of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area in China by combining a rainfall erosivity index with multiple tracing proxies, and the impacts of natural and anthropogenic drivers on sediment production were also explored. Erosive rainfalls with low frequency and large magnitude in the rainy season contribute to a substantial proportion of annual total rainfall, which thus can be used to infer erosion and sediment yield events. The sedimentary chronology was determined by comparing rainfall erosivity index with depth distribution of 137Cs and absolute particle size, which revealed annual sedimentation rates ranging from 1.1 to 2.3 cm a−1. The multi-proxy dating index and variation of sedimentation rate divided the sediment profile into three major periods. The reference period (1956–1982) displays low variability of TOC, TN, trace metal concentrations, and mean sedimentation rate. In the stressed period (1982–1998), industrial and sewerage discharge led to input and deposition of TOC, TN, and trace metals (e.g., Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, and Ni). The highest annual sediment accumulation rate of 2.3 cm a−1 may be ascribed to the 1982 big flood event. In the present period (1998–2013), increased TOC, TN and decreased trace metals in the top layers of the sediment core indicated changes in lake ecology. Fish farming promoted algal growth and primary productivity which caused eutrophication until 2004–2005. The reduced mean sedimentation rate of 1.7 cm a−1 between 1998 and 2004, and thereafter, may be attributed to soil and water conservation and reforestation policies implemented in the Longxi catchment. Human activities such as deforestation, cultural and industrial revolution, and lake eutrophication associated with fish farming since 1989, therefore led to appreciable limnological variations. Overall, the dated sedimentary profile from Changshou Lake displays high consistency with archived historical events and reflects the impact of both natural and anthropogenic controls on sediment production.

Keywords

Human activities Sedimentary records Geochemical profile 137Cs Dating Three Gorges Reservoir Area 

Notes

Funding information

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant 41771320; 41771321; 41471234), the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS; Grant KFJ-SW-STS-175), and CAS Key Laboratory of Mountain Surface Processes and Ecological Regulation. QT is supported by a UK Royal Society Newton International Fellowship (Grant NF161415) scheme and is hosted by Rothamsted Research under the supervision of ALC. Rothamsted Research receives strategic funding from the UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and the contribution by ALC to this manuscript was funded by Grant BBS/E/C/000I0330 - Soil to Nutrition. We are thankful to Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, Pakistan and Higher Education Commission of the Government of Pakistan for their support.

References

  1. Anjum R, Gao J, Tang Q, He X, Zhang X, Long Y, Shi Z, Wang M (2017) Linking sedimentary total organic carbon to 210Pbex chronology from Changshou Lake in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China. Chemosphere 174:243–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Appleby PG (2001) Chronostratigraphic techniques in recent sediments. In: Last W, Smol J (eds) Tracking environmental change using lake sediments. 1. Springer, Netherlands, pp 171–203Google Scholar
  3. Becker S, Germmer M, Jiang T (2006) Spatiotemporal analysis of precipitation trends in the Yangtze River catchment. Stoch Environ Res Risk Assess 20(6):435–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cao Y, Zhou W, Wang J, Yuan C (2011) Spatial-temporal pattern and differences of land use changes in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area of China during 1975-2005. J Mt Sci 8(4):551–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen B, Fan D, Li W, Wang L, Zhang X, Liu M, Guo Z (2014a) Enrichment of heavy metals in the inner shelf mud of the East China Sea and its indication to human activity. Cont Shelf Res 90:163–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen J, Wu X, Finlayson BL, Webber M, Wei T, Li M, Chen Z (2014b) Variability and trend in the hydrology of the Yangtze River, China: annual precipitation and runoff. J Hydrol 513:403–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chongqing, Changshou county statistical book (1986, 2002, 2006, 2011) Statistical Department, Changshou (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  8. Chongqing, Dianjiang county statistical book (2015) Statistical Department, Dianjiang (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  9. Chu X, Wang Y, Xia Y, Wu Y, Chen L (2009) Generation of runoff characteristics over three time periods for four typical forests in Jinyun Mountain, Chongqing City, Southwest China. Front For China 4(2):171–177 (In Chinese with English abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dietz RD, Engstrom DR, Anderson NJ (2015) Patterns and drivers of change in organic carbon burial across a diverse landscape: insights from 116 Minnesota lakes. Global Biogeochem Cycles 29(5):708–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Douglas Hurt R (2010) American and Chinese agricultural policy since 1949: an overview. Procedia Soc Behav 2(5):6692–6701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Erkossa T, Wudneh A, Desalegn B, Taye G (2015) Linking soil erosion to on-site financial cost: lessons from watersheds in the Blue Nile basin. Solid Earth 6(2):765–774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gao JZ, Long Y, Zhang XB, Collins AL, He XB, Zhang YQ, Shi ZL (2016) Interpreting sedimentation dynamics at Longxi catchment in the Three Gorges Area, China, using Cs-137 activity, particle size and rainfall erosivity. J Mt Sci 13(5):857–869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Garcia-Rodriguez F, Mazzeo N, Sprechmann P, Metzeltin D, Sosa F, Treutler HC, Renom M, Scharf B, Gaucher C (2002) Paleolimnological assessment of human impacts in Lake Blanca, SE Uruguay. J Paleolimnol 28(4):457–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Garcia-Rodriguez F, Anderson CR, Adams JB (2007) Paleolimnological assessment of human impacts on an urban South African lake. J Paleolimnol 38(3):297–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Garcia-Ruiz JM, Beguería S, Lana-Renault N, Nadal-Romero E, Cerdà A (2017) Ongoing and emerging questions in water erosion studies. Land Degrad Dev 28(1):5–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Green PA, Vorosmarty CJ, Harrison I, Farrell T, Saenz L, Fekete BM (2015) Freshwater ecosystem services supporting humans: pivoting from water crisis to water solutions. Global Environ Chang 34:108–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gui Z, Xue B, Yao S, Zhang F, Yi S (2012) Catchment erosion and trophic status changes over the past century as recorded in sediments from Wudalianchi Lake, the northernmost volcanic lake in China. Quatern Int 282:163–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Guo HT, Zhang JZ, Wei SQ, Xie DT, Che JC (2011a) Seasonal variation of heavy metals in the sediment of Changshou Lake. Chin Agric Sci Bull 27:327–332 (In Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  20. Guo HT, Zhang JZ, Wei SQ, Xie DT, Che JC (2011b) Seasonal variation characteristics of phosphorus speciation in the sediment of Changshou Lake. Huanjing Kexue 32:1994–1999 (In Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  21. Guo W, Huo S, Ding W (2015) Historical record of human impact in a lake of northern China: magnetic susceptibility, nutrients, heavy metals and OCPs. Ecol Indic 57:74–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. He Q, Walling DE (1996) Interpreting particle size effects in the adsorption of 137Cs and unsupported 210Pb by mineral soils and sediments. J Environ Radioactiv 30(2):117–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. He Q, Walling DE, Owens PN (1996) Interpreting the 137Cs profiles observed in several small lakes and reservoirs in southern England. Chem Geol 129(1–2):115–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. He XB, Zhang XB, Wen AB, Zhu P (2004) A conceptional model for fingerprinting catchment erosion and sediment source in upper Yangtze River. Proceedings of the ninth international symposium on river sedimentation pp. 2649–2653Google Scholar
  25. He XB, Zhou J, Zhang XB, Tang KL (2006) Soil erosion response to climatic change and human activity during the Quaternary on the Loess Plateau, China. Reg Environ Chang 6(1):62–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hu PF, He TR (2012) Forms and pollution assessment of nitrogen in surface sediments of Changshou Lake. Res Soil Water Conserv 19: 163–167 (In Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  27. Kim J, Rejmankova E (2001) The paleoecological record of human disturbance in wetlands of the Lake Tahoe Basin. J Paleolimnol 25(4):437–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Li S, Guo W, Yin Y, Jin X, Tang W (2015) Environmental changes inferred from lacustrine sediments and historical literature: a record from Gaoyou Lake, eastern China. Quatern Int 380–381:350–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Liang K, Hu X, Li S, Huang C, Tang Y (2014) Anthropogenic effect on deposition dynamics of lake sediments based on 137Cs and 210Pbex techniques in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China. Chinese Geogr Sci 24(2):180–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Liang A, Wang Y, Guo H, Bo L, Zhang S, Bai Y (2015) Assessment of pollution and identification of sources of heavy metals in the sediments of Changshou Lake in a branch of the Three Gorges Reservoir. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22(20):16067–16076CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Liu G, Liu Z, Li Y, Chen F, Gu B, Smoak JM (2008) Effects of fish introduction and eutrophication on the cladoceran community in Lake Fuxian, a deep oligotrophic lake in southwest China. J Paleolimnol 42(3):427–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Liu W, Wu J, Zeng H, Ma L (2014) Geochemical evidence of human impacts on deep Lake Fuxian, southwest China. Limnologica 45:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lu XX, Higgitt DL (2001) Sediment delivery to the Three Gorges: 2: local response. Geomorphology 41(2–3):157–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lu SY, Xu MS, Jin XC, Huang GZ, Hu W (2012) Pollution characteristics and evaluation of nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter in surface sediments of Lake Changshouhu in Chongqing, China. Environ Sci 33(2):393–398Google Scholar
  35. Orr S, Pittock J, Chapagain A, Dumaresq D (2012) Dams on the Mekong River: lost fish protein and the implications for land and water resources. Global Environ Chang 22(4):925–932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Robbins JA, Krezoski JR, Mozley SC (1977) Radioactivity in sediments of the Great Lakes: post-depositional redistribution by deposit-feeding organisms. Earth Planet Sc Lett 36(2):325–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rodrigo Comino J, Iserloh T, Lassu T, Cerdà A, Keestra SD, Prosdocimi M, Brings C, Marzen M, Ramos MC, Senciales JM, Ruiz Sinoga JD, Seeger M, Ries JB (2016) Quantitative comparison of initial soil erosion processes and runoff generation in Spanish and German vineyards. Sci Total Environ 565:1165–1174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Smith NJH, Alvim P, Homma A, Falesi I, Serrão A (1991) Environmental impacts of resource exploitation in Amazonia. Global Environ Chang 1(4):313–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Taguas EV, Guzmán E, Guzmán G, Vanwalleghem T, Gómez JA (2015) Characteristics and importance of rill and gully erosion: a case study in a small catchment of a marginal olive grove. Cuad Investig Geogr 41(1):107–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tylmann W (2005) Lithological and geochemical record of anthropogenic changes in recent sediments of a small and shallow lake (Lake Pusty Staw, northern Poland). J Paleolimnol 33(3):313–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wei J, He X, Bao Y (2011) Anthropogenic impacts on suspended sediment load in the Upper Yangtze river. Reg Environ Chang 11(4):857–868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wu JL, Michael KG, Jiang XZ, Xia WL, Wang SM (2004) Sedimentary geochemical evidence for recent eutrophication of Lake Chenghai, Yunnan, China. J Paleolimnol 32(1):85–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wu JL, Huang CM, Zeng H, Schleser GH, Battarbee R (2007) Sedimentary evidence for recent eutrophication in the northern basin of Lake Taihu, China: human impacts on a large shallow lake. J Paleolimnol 38(1):13–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wu Y, Liu E, Bing H, Yang X, Xue B, Xia W (2010) Geochronology of recent lake sediments from Longgan Lake, middle reach of the Yangtze River, influenced by disturbance of human activities. Sci China Earth Sci 53(8):1188–1194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Xiang L, Lu XX, Higgitt DL, Wang SM (2002) Recent lake sedimentation in the middle and lower Yangtze basin inferred from 137Cs and 210Pb measurements. J Asian Earth Sci 21(1):77–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Xie Y, Liu BY, Zhang WB (2000) Study on standard of erosive rainfall. J Soil Water Conserv 14(4):6–11 (In Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  47. Xu JX (2003) Sedimentation rates in the lower Yellow River over the past 2300 years as influenced by human activities and climate change. Hudrol Process 17:3359–3371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Xu J (2009) Some rainfall-related thresholds for erosion and sediment yield in the upper Yangtze River basin. Environ Geol 56(6):1183–1192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Xu X, Du Y, Tang J, Wang Y (2011) Variations of temperature and precipitation extremes in recent two decades over China. Atmos Res 101:143–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Xue B, Yao S (2011) Recent sedimentation rates in lakes in lower Yangtze River basin. Quatern Int 244(2):248–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Xue B, Yao S, Xia W, Zhu Y (2010) Some sediment-geochemical evidence for the recent environmental changes of the lakes from the middle and lower Yangtze River basin, China. Quatern Int 226(1–2):29–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Yao SC, Li SJ (2004) Sedimentary records of eutrophication for the last 100 years in Caohu Lake. Acta Sedimentol Sin 22(2):343–347Google Scholar
  53. Yu Z, Wang X, Zhao C, Lan H (2015) Carbon burial in Bosten Lake over the past century: impacts of climate change and human activity. Chem Geol 419:132–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Yuan GL, Liu C, Chen L, Yang Z (2011) Inputting history of heavy metals into the inland lake recorded in sediment profiles: Poyang Lake in China. J Hazard Mater 185(1):336–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Zeng HA, Wu JL (2009) Sedimentary records of heavy metal pollution in Fuxian Lake, Yunnan province, China: intensity, history, and sources. Pedosphere 19(5):562–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zhang WB, Fu JS (2003) Rainfall erosivity estimation under different rainfall amount. Resources science 25:35–41 (In Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  57. Zhang W, Xie Y, Liu B (2002) Rainfall erosivity estimation using daily rainfall amounts. Sci Geogr Sin 22:705–711 (In Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  58. Zhang S, Liu J, Wei S, Gao J, Wang D, Zhang K (2006) Impact of aquaculture on eutrophication in Changshou Reservoir. Chin J Geochem 25(1):90–96 (In Chinese with English abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Zhang QF, Wang L, Wu FQ (2008a) GIS-based assessment of soil erosion at Nihe Gou catchment. Agric Sci China 7(6):746–753 (In Chinese with English abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Zhang S, Li C, Huang S, Zheng J (2008b) Trophic states and nutrient storage of reservoirs in Chongqing. Chin J Geochem 27(3):310–316 (In Chinese with English abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Zhang E, Liu E, Jones R, Langdon P (2010a) A 150-year record of recent changes in human activity and eutrophication of Lake Wushan from the middle reach of the Yangze River, China. J Limnol 69(2):235–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Zhang H, Li S, Feng Q, Zhang S (2010b) Environmental change and human activities during the 20th century reconstructed from the sediment of Xingyun Lake, Yunnan Province, China. Quatern Int 212(1):14–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Zhang X, Bai X, Liu X (2011) Application of a 137Cs fingerprinting technique for interpreting responses of sediment deposition of a karst depression to deforestation in the Guizhou Plateau, China. Sci China Earth Sci 54(3):431–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raheel Anjum
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Qiang Tang
    • 1
    • 4
  • Adrian L. Collins
    • 4
  • Jinzhang Gao
    • 1
  • Yi Long
    • 1
  • Xinbao Zhang
    • 1
  • Xiubin He
    • 1
  • Zhonglin Shi
    • 1
  • Anbang Wen
    • 1
  • Jie Wei
    • 5
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Mountain Surface Processes and Ecological Regulation, Institute of Mountain Hazards and EnvironmentChinese Academy of SciencesChengduChina
  2. 2.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.Abdul Wali Khan UniversityMardanPakistan
  4. 4.Sustainable Agriculture Sciences DepartmentRothamsted ResearchOkehamptonUK
  5. 5.Geography and Tourism CollegeChongqing Normal UniversityChongqingChina

Personalised recommendations