Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 28, pp 27704–27723 | Cite as

Comparison of different advanced degradation processes for the removal of the pharmaceutical compounds diclofenac and carbamazepine from liquid solutions

  • Andrea G. CapodaglioEmail author
  • Anna Bojanowska-Czajka
  • Marek Trojanowicz
New Challenges in the Application of Advanced Oxidation Processes


Carbamazepine and diclofenac are two examples of drugs with widespread geographical and environmental media proliferation that are poorly removed by traditional wastewater treatment processes. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been proposed as alternative methods to remove these compounds in solution. AOPs are based on a wide class of powerful technologies, including UV radiation, ozone, hydrogen peroxide, Fenton process, catalytic wet peroxide oxidation, heterogeneous photocatalysis, electrochemical oxidation and their combinations, sonolysis, and microwaves applicable to both water and wastewater. Moreover, processes rely on the production of oxidizing radicals (•OH and others) in a solution to decompose present pollutants. Water radiolysis-based processes, which are an alternative to the former, involve the use of concentrated energy (beams of accelerated electrons or γ-rays) to split water molecules, generating strong oxidants and reductants (radicals) at the same time. In this paper, the degradation of carbamazepine and diclofenac by means of all these processes is discussed and compared. Energy and byproduct generation issues are also addressed.


Diclofenac Carbamazepine Pharmaceutical compounds Advanced oxidation processes Radiolytic decomposition Advanced oxidation–reduction processes 



advanced oxidation process


advanced oxidation–reduction processes


biomass concentrator reactor


boron-doped diamond




contaminants of emerging concern


chemical oxygen demand


disinfection byproduct




electron beam


electrical energy per order


granular activated carbon


liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection


membrane biological reactor


natural organic matter


4′-hydroxy diclofenac


5-hydroxy diclofenac


4′-hydroxy diclofenac dehydrate


predicted non-effect concentrations


pharmaceuticals and personal care products


sludge retention time


total organic carbon


wastewater treatment plant


Funding information

This work was partly supported by a grant from the Polish National Center of Science (NCN); project OPUS 8, number 2014/15/B/ST4/04601.


  1. Abdelmelek SB, Greaves J, Ishida KP, Cooper WJ, Song W (2011) Removal of pharmaceutical and personal care products from reverse osmosis retentate using advanced oxidation processes. Environ Sci Technol 45:3665–3671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Achilleos A, Hapeshi E, Xekoukoulatakis NP, Mantzavinos D, Fatta-Kassinos D (2010a) Factors affecting diclofenac decomposition in water by UV-A/TiO2 photocatalysis. Chem Eng J 161:53–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Achilleos A, Hapeshi E, Xekoukoulotakis, Mantzavinos D, Datta-Kassinos D (2010b) UV-A and solar photodegradation of ibuprofen and carbamazepine catalyzed by TiO2. Sep Sci Technol 45:1564–1570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Agüeran A, Perez Estrada LA, Ferre L, Thurman EM, Malata S, Fernandez-Alba AR (2005) Application of time-of-flight mass spectrometry to the analysis of phototransformation products of diclofenac in water under natural sunlight. J Mass Spectrom 40:908–915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aguinaco A, Bekltran FJ, Garcia-Araya JF, Oropesa A (2012) Photocatalytic ozonation to remove the phramaceutical diclofenac from water: influence of variables. Chem Eng J 189-190:275–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alharbi SK, Kang J, Nghiem LD, van de Merwe JP, Leusch FDL, Price WE (2017) Photolysis and UV/H2O2 of diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, and trimethoprim: identification of their major degradation products by ESI-LC-MS and assessment of the toxicity of reaction mixtures. Process Saf Environ Prot 112:222–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Amro H, Tuffaha R, Zenati S, Jneidi M (2008) Remediation of polluted waters and wastewater by irradiation processing in Jordan. In “Radiation treatment of polluted water and wastewater”. International Atomic Energy Agency, Industrial Application in Chemistry Section, Report IAEATECDOC-1598, IAEA, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  8. Andreozzi R, Raffaele M, Nicklas P (2003) Pharmaceuticals in STP effluents and their solar photodegradation in aquatic environment. Chemosphere 50:1319–1330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bae S, Kim D, Lee W (2013) Degradation of diclofenac by pyrite catalyzed Fenton oxidation. Appl Catal B Environ 134-135:93–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bagheri A, Mahvi AH, Nabizadeh R, Dehghani MH, Mahmoudi B, Akbari-Adergani M, Yaghmaeian K (2017) Rapid destruction of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac using advanced nano-Fenton process in aqueous solution. Acta Medica Mediter 33:879–883Google Scholar
  11. Barazesh JM, Hennebel T, Jasper JT, Sedlak DL (2015) Modular advanced oxidation process enabled by cathodic hydrogen peroxide production. Environ Sci Technol 49:7391–7399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barcelo D, Petrovic M (2008) Ozone-based technologies in water and wastewater treatment. Chapter in Barcelo D, Petrovic M (eds) Emerging contaminants from industrial and municipal waste. The handbook of environmental chemistry: removal technologies. Springer-VerlagGoogle Scholar
  13. Bartels P, von Tümpling W Jr (2007) Solar radiation influence on the decomposition process of diclofenac in surface waters. Sci Total Environ 374:143–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bojanowska-Czajka A, Kciuk G, Gumiela M, Borowiecka S, Nałęcz-Jawecki G, Koc A, Garcia-Reyes JF, Solpan Ozbay D, Trojanowicz M (2015) Analytical, toxicological and kinetic investigation of decomposition of the drug diclofenac in waters and wastes using gamma radiation. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:20255–20270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bolton JR, Valladares JE, Zanin JP, Cooper WJ, Nickelson MG (1998) Figures-of-merit for advanced oxidation technologies: a comparison of homogeneous UV/H2O2, heterogeneous UV/TiO2 and electron beam processes. J Adv Oxid Technol 3:174–181Google Scholar
  16. Bolton JR, Bircher KG, Tumas W, Tolman CA (2001) Figures-of-merit for the technical development and application of advanced oxidation technologies for both electric- and solar-driven systems (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure Appl Chem 73(4):627–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Boxall A, Kolpin D, Halling-Sørensen B, Tolls J (2003) Are veterinary medicines causing environmental risks? Environ Sci Technol 8:286–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Boxall ABA, Sinclair CJ, Fenner K, Kolpin D, Maund SJ (2004) When synthetic chemicals degrade in the environment. Environ Sci Technol 38:368A–354ACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brillas E, Garcia-Segura S, Skoumal M, Arias C (2010) Electrochemical incineration of diclofenac in neutral aqueous medium by anodic oxidation using Pt and boron-doped diamond anodes. Chemosphere 79:605–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Buxton GV, Greenstock CL, Helman WP, Ross AB (1988) Critical review of rate constants for reactions of hydrated electrons, hydrogen atoms and hydroxyl radicals (•OH/•O) in aqueous solution. J Phys Chem Ref Data 17:513–886CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Calisto V, Domingues MRM, Erny GL, Estevas VI (2011) Direct photodegradation of carbamazepine followed by micellar electrokinetic chromatography and mass spectrometry. Water Res 45:1095–1104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Callegari A, Capodaglio AG (2017) Effects of selected industrial pollutants on urban WWTPs activated sludge population, and possible mitigation strategies. Wat Pract Technol 12(3):619–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Callegari A, Boguniewicz-Zabłocka J, Capodaglio AG (2017) Experimental application of an advanced separation process for NOM removal from surface drinking water supply. Separations 4:32. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Calza P, Sakkas VA, Medana C, Baiocchio C, Dimou A, Pelizzetti E, Albanis T (2006) Photocatalytic degradation study of diclofenac over aqueous TiO2 suspensions. Appl Catal B Environ 67:197–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Capodaglio AG (2016) In-stream detection of waterborne priority pollutants, and applications in drinking water contaminant warning systems. Water Sci Technol Water Supply 17(3):707–725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Capodaglio AG (2017) High-energy radiation processes for emerging and refractory contaminants removal from water and wastewater. Clean Technol Environ Poll 19(8):1995–2006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Capodaglio AG, Callegari A (2015) Onsite management of tanker ships’ rinse water by means of a compact bioreactor. Wat Prac Technol 10(4):681–687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Capodaglio AG, Callegari A (2016) Domestic wastewater treatment with a decentralized, simple technology biomass concentrator reactor. J Wat Sanit Hyg Devel 6(3):507–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Capodaglio AG, Suidan M, Venosa AD, Callegari A (2010) Efficient degradation of MtBE and other gasoline-originated compounds by means of a biological reactor of novel conception: two case studies in Italy and the USA. Water Sci Technol 61(3):807–812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cecconet D, Molognoni D, Callegari A, Capodaglio AG (2017) Biological combination processes for efficient removal of pharmaceutically active compounds from wastewater: a review and future perspectives. J Environ Chem Eng 5:3590–3603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cecconet D, Devecseri M, Callegari A, Capodaglio AG (2018) Effects of process operating conditions on the autotrophic denitrification of nitrate-contaminated groundwater using bioelectrochemical systems. Sci Total Environ 613-614:663–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chong MN, Jin B, Laera G, Saint CP (2011) Evaluating the photodegradation of carbamazepine in a sequential batch photoreactor system: impacts of effluent organic matter and inorganic ions. Chem Eng J 174:595–602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Clara M, Strenn B, Kreuzinger N (2004) Carbamazepine as a possible anthropogenic marker in the aquatic environment: investigations on the behaviour of carbamazepine in wastewater treatment and during groundwater infiltration. Water Res 38:947–954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Clara M, Kreuzinger N, Strenn B, Gans O, Kroiss H (2005a) The solids retention time—a suitable design parameter to evaluate the capacity of wastewater treatment plants to remove micropollutants. Water Res 39:97–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Clara M, Strenn B, Gans O, Martinez E, Kreuzinger N, Kroiss H (2005b) Removal of selected pharmaceuticals, fragrances and endocrine disrupting compounds in a membrane bioreactor and conventional wastewater treatment plants. Water Res 39:4797–4807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Coelho AD, Sans C, Esplugas S, Dezotti M (2010) Ozonation of NSAID: a biodegradability and toxicity study. Ozone Sci Eng 32:91–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Daughton CG, Jones-Lepp T (2001) Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment—scientific and regulatory issues. ACS Symposium Series, vol 791. American Chemical Society, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  38. Daughton CG, Ternes T (1999) Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment: agents of subtle change? Environ Health Perspect Suppl 107:907–938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. De la Cruz N, Gimenez J, Esplugas S, Grandjean D, de Alencastro LF, Pulgarin C (2012) Degradation of 32 emergent contaminants by UV and neutral photo-Fenton in domestic wastewater effluent previously treated by activated sludge. Water Res 46:1942–1957Google Scholar
  40. Deng J, Shao Y, Gao NY, Xia SJ, Tan CQ, Zhou SQ, Hu XH (2013) Degradation of the antiepileptic drug carbamazepine upon different UV-based advanced oxidation processes in water. Chem Eng J 222:150–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. EC (2008) Directive 2008/105/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on environmental quality standards in the field of water policy, amending and subsequently repealing Council Directives 82/176/EEC, 83/513/EEC, 84/156/EEC, 84/491/EEC, 86/280/EEC and amending Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the council. Off J Eur Union L348:84–97Google Scholar
  42. EC (2013) Directive 2013/39/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 August 2013 amending Directives 2000/60/EC and 2008/105/EC as regards priority substances in the field of water policy. Off J Eur Union L226:1–17Google Scholar
  43. Esplugas S, Bila DM, Krause LGT, Dezotti M (2007) Ozonation and advanced oxidation technologies to remove endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in water effluents. J Hazard Mater 149:631–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Fang JY, Fu Y, Shang C (2014) The roles of reactive species in micropollutant degradation in the UV/free chlorine system. Environ Sci Technol 48:1859–1868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Feng L, van Hullebusch ED, Rodrigo MA, Esposito G, Oturan MA (2013) Removal of residual anti-inflammatory and analgesic pharmaceuticals from aqueous systems by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes. A review. Chem Eng J 228:944–964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Finkbeiner P, Franke M, Anschuetz F, Ignaszak A, Stelter N, Braeutigam P (2015) Sonoelectrochemical degradation of the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac in water. Chem Eng J 273:214–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Giri RR, Ozaki H, Ota S, Takanami R, Taniguchi S (2010) Degradation of common pharmaceuticals and personal care products in mixed solutions by advanced oxidation techniques. Int J Environ Sci Technol 7:251–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Giri RR, Ozaki H, Takayanagi Y, Taniguchi S, Takanami R (2011) Efficacy of ultraviolet radiation and hydrogen peroxide oxidation to eliminate large number of pharmaceutical compounds in mixed solution. Int J Environ Sci Technol 8:19–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hartmann J, Bartels P, Mau U, Witter M, von Tumpling W, Hofmann J, Nietzchmann E (2008) Degradation of the drug diclofenac in water by sonolysis in the presence of catalyst. Chemosphere 70:453–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. He S, Wang J, Ye L, Zhang Y, Yu J (2014) Removal of diclofenac from surface water by electron beam irradiation combined with a biological aerated filter. Radiat Phys Chem 105:104–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Heberer T (2002) Occurrence, fate and removal of pharmaceutical residues in the aquatic environment: a review of recent research data. Toxicol Lett 131(1–2):5–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Helbling DE, Hollender J, Kohler HE, Singer H, Fenner K (2010) High-throughput identification of microbial transformation products of organic micropollutants. Environ Sci Technol 44(17):6621–6627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hofmann J, Freier U, Wecks M, Hohmann (2007) Degradation of diclofenac in water by heterogeneous catalytic oxidation with H2O2. Appl Catal B Environ 70:447–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Homlok R, Takács E, Wojnárovits L (2011) Elimination of diclofenac from water using irradiation technology. Chemosphere 85:603–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. IAEA (2014) Nuclear technology review. International Atomic Energy Agency, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  56. Jelic A, Gros M, Ginebreda A, Cespedes-Sanchez R, Ventura F, Petrovic M, Barcelo D (2011) Occurrence, partition and removal of pharmaceuticals in sewage water and sludge during wastewater treatment. Water Res 45(3):1165–1176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Joss A, Zabaczynski S, Göbel A, Hoffmann B, Löffler D, McArdell CS, Ternes TA, Thomsen A, Siegrist H (2006) Biological degradation of pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater treatment: proposing a classification scheme. Water Res 40:1686–1696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Jux U, Baginski M, Arnold HG, Krönke M, Seng PN (2002) Detection of pharmaceutical contaminants of river, pond, and tap water from Cologne (Germany) and surroundings. Int J Hyg Environ Health 205:393–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kimura K, Hara H, Watanabe Y (2007) Elimination of selected acidic pharmaceuticals from municipal wastewater by an activated sludge system and membrane bioreactors. Environ Sci Technol 41:3708–3714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kimura A, Osawa M, Taguchi M (2012) Decomposition of persistent pharmaceuticals in wastewater by ionizing radiation. Radiat Phys Chem 81:1508–1512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Komtchou S, Dirany A, Drogui P, Bermond A (2015) Removal of carbamazepine from spiked municipal wastewater using electro-Fenton process. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:11513–11525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kruithof JC, Kamp PC, Martijn BJ (2007) UV/H2O2 treatment: a practical solution for organic contaminant control and primary disinfection. Ozone Sci Eng 29:273–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kümmerer K (2001) Drugs in the environment: emission of drugs, diagnostic aids and disinfectants into wastewater by hospitals in relation to other sources—a review. Chemosphere 45(6-7):957–969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Laera G, Ching MN, Jin B, Lopez A (2011) An integrated MBR-TiO2 photocatalysis process for the removal of carbamazepine from simulated pharmaceutical industrial effluent. Biosource Technol 102:7012–7015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lester Y, Mamane H, Zucker I, Avisar D (2013) Treating wastewater from a pharmaceutical formulation facility by biological process and ozone. Water Res 47:4349–4356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Liu Q, Luo X, Zheng Z, Zheng B, Zhang J, Zhao Y, Yang X, Wang Y, Wang L (2011) Factors that have an effect on degradation of diclofenac in aqueous solution by gamma ray irradiation. Environ Sci Pollut Res 18:1243–1252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Liu N, Lei ZD, Wang T, Wang JJ, Zhang XD, Xu G, Tang L (2016) Radiolysis of carbamazepine aqueous solution using electron beam irradiation combining with hydrogen peroxide: efficiency and mechanism. Chem Eng J 295:484–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Luo Y, Guo W, Ngo HH, Nghiem LD, Hai FI, Zhang J, Liang S, Wang XC (2014) A review on the occurrence of micropollutants in the aquatic environment and their fate and removal during wastewater treatment. Sci Total Environ 473-474:619–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Martinez C, Canle M, Fernandez MI, Santaballa JA, Faria J (2011) Aqueous degradation of diclofenac by heterogeneous photocatalysis using nanostructured materials. Appl Catal B Environ 107:110–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Martinez-Huitle CA, Ferro S (2006) Electrochemical oxidation of organic pollutants for the wastewater treatment: direct and indirect processes. Chem Soc Rev 35:1324–1340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Matamoros V, Dubec A, Albaiges J, Bayona JM (2009) Photodegradation of carbamazepine, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and 17α-ethinylestradiol in fresh and sweater. Wat Air Sci Pollut 196:161–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. McDowell DC, Huber MM, Wagner M, Von Gunten U, Ternes TA (2005) Ozonation of carbamazepine in drinking water: identification and kinetic study of major oxidation products. Environ Sci Technol 39:8014–8022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Michael I, Achilleos A, Lambropoulou D, Osorio Torrens V, Perez S, Petrovic M, Barcelo D, Fatta-Kassionos D (2014) Proposed transformation pathway and evolution profile of diclofenac and ibuprofen transformation products during (sono)photocatalysis. Appl Catal B Environ 147:1015–1027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Molognoni D, Devecseri M, Cecconet D, Capodaglio AG (2017) Cathodic groundwater denitrification with a bioelectrochemical system. J Wat Proc Eng 19:67–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Monteagudo JM, Duran A, Gonzalez EAJ (2015) In situ chemical oxidation of carbamazepine solutions using persulfate simultaneously activated by heat energy, UV light, Fe2+ ions, and H2O2. Appl Catal B Environ 176-177:120–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Naddeo V, Belgiorno V, Ricco D, Kassinos D (2009) Degradation of diclofenac during sonolysis, ozonation and their simultaneous applications. Ultrason Sonochem 16:790–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Nie E, Yang M, Wang D, Yang X, Luo X, Zheng Z (2014) Degradation of diclofenac by ultrasonic irradiation: kinetic studies and degradation pathways. Chemosphere 113:165–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. O’Connor N, Dargan PI, Jones AL (2003) Hepatocellular damage from non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Q J Med 96:787–791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Paxéus N (2004) Removal of selected non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), gemfibrozil, carbamazepine, β-blockers, trimethoprim and triclosan in conventional wastewater treatment plants in five EU countries and their discharge to the aquatic environment. Water Sci Technol 50:253–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Perez-Estrada LA, Maldonado MI, Gernjak W, Aguera A, Fernandez-Alba BMM, Malato S (2005) Decomposition of diclofenac by solar driven photocalaysis at pilot plant scale. Catal Today 101:219–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Petrovic M, Gonzalez S, Barcelo D (2003) Analysis and removal of emerging contaminants in wastewater and drinking water. Trends Anal Chem 22(10):685–696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Poiger T, Buser HR, Müller MD (2001) Photodegradation of the pharmaceutical drug diclofenac in a lake: pathway, field measurements, and mathematical modeling. Environ Toxicol Chem 20:256–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. POSEIDON (2006) POSEIDON Final Report: assessment of technologies for the removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in sewage and drinking water facilities to improve the indirect potable water reuse. Contract no. EVK1-CT-2000-00047Google Scholar
  84. Quintana BJ, Weiss S, Reemtsma T (2005) Pathways and metabolites of microbial degradation of selected acidic pharmaceutical and their occurrence in municipal wastewater treated by a membrane bioreactor. Water Res 39:2654–2664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Ravina M, Campanella L, Kiwi J (2002) Accelerated mineralization of the drug diclofenac via Fenton reactions in a concentric photo-reactor. Water Res 36:3553–3560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Rizzo L, Meric S, Kassinos D, Guida M, Russo F, Belgiorno V (2009) Degradation of diclofenac by TiO2 photocatalysis: UV absorbance kinetics and process evaluation through a set of toxicity bioassays. Water Res 43:979–988CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Scheytt TJ, Mersmann P, Heberer T (2006) Mobility of pharmaceuticals carbamazepine, diclofenac, ibuprofen, and propyphenazone in miscible displacement experiments. J Contam Hydrol 83:53–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sichel C, Garcia C, Andre K (2011) Feasibility studies: UV/chlorine advanced oxidation treatment for the removal of emerging contaminants. Water Res 45:6371–6380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Stülten D, Zühlke S, Lamshöft M, Spiteller M (2008) Occurrence of diclofenac and selected metabolites in sewage effluents. Sci Total Environ 405(1–3):310–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Ternes TA (1998) Occurrence of drugs in German sewage treatment plants and rivers. Water Res 32:3245–3260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Ternes TA, Herrmann N, Bonerz M, Knacker T, Siegrist H, Joss A (2004) A rapid method to measure the solid–water distribution coefficient (Kd) for pharmaceuticals and musk fragrances in sewage sludge. Water Res 38:4075–4084CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Tokumura M, Sugawatra A, Raknuzzaman M, Habibullah-Al-Mamun M, Masunaga S (2016) Comprehensive study on effects of water matrices on removal of pharmaceuticals by three different kinds of AOP. Chemosphere 159:317–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Trojanowicz M, Bojanowska-Czajka A, Capodaglio AG (2017) Can radiation chemistry supply a highly efficient AO(R)P process for organics removal from drinking and waste water? A review. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24:20187–20208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Tuerk J, Sayder B, Boergers A, Vitz H, Kiffmeyer TK, Kabasci S (2010) Efficiency, costs and benefits of AOPs for removal of pharmaceuticals from the water cycle. Water Sci Technol 61:985–993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Urase T, Kikuta T (2005) Separate estimation of adsorption and degradation of pharmaceutical substances and estrogens in the activated sludge process. Water Res 39:1289–1300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Vedenyapuina MD, Strel’tsova ED, Davshan NA, Vedenyapin AA (2011) Study of the electrochemical degradation of diclofenac on a boron-doped diamond electrode by UV spectroscopy. Russ J Appl Chem 84:204–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Vogna D, Marotta R, Andreozzi R, Napolitano A, d’Ischia M (2004a) Kinetic and chemical assessment of the UV/H2O2 treatment of antiepileptic drug carbamazepine. Chemosphere 54:497–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Vogna D, Marotta R, Napolitano A, Andreozzi R, d’Ischia M (2004b) Advanced oxidation of the pharmaceutical drug diclofenac with UV/H2O2 and ozone. Water Res 38:414–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Wang D, Bolton JR, Hofmann R (2012) Medium pressure UV combined with chlorine advanced oxidation for trichloroethylene destruction in a model water. Water Res 46:4677–4686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wang D, Bolton JR, Andrews SA, Hofmann R (2015) Disinfection by-products in the ultraviolet/chlorine oxidation process. Sci Total Environ 518–519:49–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wu Q, Shi H, Adams CD, Timmons T, Ma Y (2012) Oxidative removal of selected endocrine-disruptors and pharmaceuticals in drinking water treatment systems, and identification of degradation products of triclosan. Sci Total Environ 439:18–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Xu G, Liu N, Wu MH, Bu TT, Zheng M (2013) The photodegradation of clopyralid in aqueous solutions: effects of light sources and water constituents. Ind Eng Chem Res 52(29):9770–9774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Yu H, Nie E, Xu J, Yan S, Cooper WJ, Song W (2013) Degradation of diclofenac by advanced oxidation and reduction processes: kinetic studies, degradation pathways and toxicity assessments. Water Res 47:1909–1918CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Zhang Y, Geißen S, Gal C (2008) Carbamazepine and diclofenac: removal in wastewater treatment plants and occurrence in water bodies. Chemosphere 73:1151–1161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Zhao X, Hou Y, Liu H, Qiang Z, Qu J (2009) Electro-oxidation of diclofenac at boron doped diamond: kinetics and mechanism. Electrochim Acta 54:4172–4179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Zheng M, Xu G, Pei J, He X, Xu P, Liu N, Wu M (2014) EB-radiolysis of carbamazepine: in pure-water with different ions and in surface water. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 302:139–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Zheng M, Xu G, Zhao L, Pei JC, Wu MH (2015) Comparison of EB-radiolysis and UV/H2O2-degradation of CBZ in pure water and solutions. Nucl Sci Tech 26.
  108. Zhou S, Xia Y, Li T, Yao T, Shi Z, Zhu S, Gao N (2016) Degradation of carbamazepine by UV/chlorine advanced oxidation process and formation of disinfection by-products. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:16448–16455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Ziylan A, Dogan S, Agopean S, Kidak R, Aviyente V, Ince NH (2014) Sonochemical degradation of diclofenac: byproduct assessment, reaction mechanisms and environmental considerations. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21:5929–5939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Zwiener C, Frimmel FH (2000) Oxidative treatment of pharmaceuticals in water. Water Res 34:1881–1885CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrea G. Capodaglio
    • 1
    Email author
  • Anna Bojanowska-Czajka
    • 2
  • Marek Trojanowicz
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Civil Engineering and ArchitecturePaviaItaly
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryUniversity of WarsawWarsawPoland
  3. 3.Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and TechnologyWarsawPoland

Personalised recommendations