Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 21, pp 21138–21148 | Cite as

Biomonitoring levels of airborne metals around Urmia Lake using deciduous trees and evaluation of their tolerance for greenbelt development

  • Amir Mohammadi
  • Mehdi Mokhtari
  • Asghar Mosleh Arani
  • Hassan Taghipour
  • Yaghoub Hajizadeh
  • Hossein Fallahzadeh
Research Article
  • 90 Downloads

Abstract

In the northwest of Iran, the dust of salty and toxic metals possibly caused due to drying Urmia Lake is threatening the health of surrounding communities. This study aimed to employ leaves of local deciduous trees for biomonitoring of toxic elements and to evaluate air pollution tolerance of the trees for greenbelt application. Sampling from leaves of four dominant tree species including Vitis vinifera, Juglans regia, Ulmus umbraculifera, and Popolus alba was carried out from gardens in two radial distances (5 and 10 km) around the Urmia Lake accounting for 16 sites. The concentration of metals in the leaves were extracted according to method USEPA method 3050B and measured by ICP AES technique. According to the levels of air pollution tolerance index (APTI), Popolus alba showed to be more sensitive to air pollution and can be applied for biomonitoring. The ranks of heavy metals and sodium concentrations in the leaves gained in the order of Na > Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > As > Cd. The mean enrichment factor for the elements was calculated from 1 to 3, suggesting minor enrichment for them. As, Pb, and Na with similar spatial distribution were dominantly observed in northwest and center-east of the Urmia Lake. Potential ecological risk (PER) index showed a moderate risk in 6% of sampling zones, where Cd and As were identified as responsible pollutants. Principle component and correlation analysis between the elements depicted human sources such as industrial activity and road traffic for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn, whereas As and Na were most likely originated from the aerosols of Urmia Lake. Our findings showed that Popolus alba can be applied as a local biomonitor and Vitis vinifera with moderate tolerance can be used as a good air pollutant sink in greenbelt development around the drying Urmia Lake in the northwest of Iran.

Keywords

Biomonitoring Heavy metals Urmia Lake APTI Greenbelt 

Notes

Funding information

This study was financially supported by grant number 951108 of the Biotechnology Development Council of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The authors would like to thank the School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, and all those who helped us with this research.

References

  1. Akata N, Tsukada H, Takahashi T, Fukutani S (2016) A simple method for sampling and analysis of particulate, inorganic gaseous and organic gaseous halogens in the atmosphere. Radiation environment and medicine: covering a broad scope of topics relevant to environmental and medical radiation research 5:29–32Google Scholar
  2. Alahabadi A, Ehrampoush MH, Miri M, Aval HE, Yousefzadeh S, Ghaffari HR, Ahmadi E, Talebi P, Fathabadi ZA, Babai F (2017) A comparative study on capability of different tree species in accumulating heavy metals from soil and ambient air. Chemosphere 172:459–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Asgarzadeh M, Vahdati K, Lotfi M, Arab M, Babaei A, Naderi F, Soufi MP, Rouhani G (2014) Plant selection method for urban landscapes of semi-arid cities (a case study of Tehran). Urban For Urban Green 13:450–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bakiyaraj R, Ayyappan D (2014) Air pollution tolerance index of some terrestrial plants around an industrial area. Int J Mod Res Rev 2:1–7Google Scholar
  5. Baycu G, Tolunay D, Özden H, Günebakan S (2006) Ecophysiological and seasonal variations in Cd, Pb, Zn, and Ni concentrations in the leaves of urban deciduous trees in Istanbul. Environ Pollut 143:545–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bell J, Mudd C (1976) Sulphur dioxide resistance in plants: a case study of Lolium perenne. Semin Ser Soc Exp BiolGoogle Scholar
  7. Bilo F, Borgese L, Dalipi R, Zacco A, Federici S, Masperi M, Leonesio P, Bontempi E, Depero LE (2017) Elemental analysis of tree leaves by total reflection X-ray fluorescence: new approaches for air quality monitoring. Chemosphere 178:504–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Celik A, Kartal AA, Akdoğan A, Kaska Y (2005) Determining the heavy metal pollution in Denizli (Turkey) by using Robinio pseudo-acacia L. Environ Int 31:105–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cocozza C, Ravera S, Cherubini P, Lombardi F, Marchetti M, Tognetti R (2016) Integrated biomonitoring of airborne pollutants over space and time using tree rings, bark, leaves and epiphytic lichens. Urban For Urban Green 17:177–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. de Paula PHM, Mateus VL, Araripe DR, Duyck CB, Saint’Pierre TD, Gioda A (2015) Biomonitoring of metals for air pollution assessment using a hemiepiphyte herb (Struthanthus flexicaulis). Chemosphere 138:429–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dirr MA (1976) Selection of trees for tolerance to salt injury. J Arboric 2:209–216Google Scholar
  12. Facchinelli A, Sacchi E, Mallen L (2001) Multivariate statistical and GIS-based approach to identify heavy metal sources in soils. Environ Pollut 114:313–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ferreira-Baptista L, De Miguel E (2005) Geochemistry and risk assessment of street dust in Luanda, Angola: a tropical urban environment. Atmos Environ 39:4501–4512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gerendás J, Polacco JC, Freyermuth SK, Sattelmacher B (1999) Significance of nickel for plant growth and metabolism. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 162:241–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gholampour A, Nabizadeh R, Hassanvand MS, Taghipour H, Nazmara S, Mahvi AH (2015) Characterization of saline dust emission resulted from Urmia Lake drying. J Environ Health Sci Eng 13:82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gholampour A, Nabizadeh R, Hassanvand MS, Nazmara S, Mahvi AH (2017) Elemental composition of particulate matters around Urmia Lake, Iran. Toxicol Environ Chem 99:17–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ghosh PK, De TK, Maiti TK (2015) Ascorbic acid production in root, nodule and Enterobacter spp. (Gammaproteobacteria) isolated from root nodule of the legume Abrus precatorius L. Biocatal Agricul Biotechnol 4:127–134Google Scholar
  18. Hajizadeh Y, Mohammadi A (2017) Influence of air pollution on chemical quality of wet atmospheric deposition: a case study in Urmia, Iran. Iran J Health Saf Environ 5:904–910Google Scholar
  19. Hakanson L (1980) An ecological risk index for aquatic pollution control. A sedimentological approach. Water Res 14:975–1001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hua C, Wang R, Liu Y (2003) Effect of exogenous ascorbic acid on active oxygen scavenging system in chloroplasts of rice under salt stress. Zuo Wu Xue Bao 30:692–696Google Scholar
  21. Huang H, Yuan X, Zeng G, Zhu H, Li H, Liu Z, Jiang H, Leng L, Bi W (2011) Quantitative evaluation of heavy metals’ pollution hazards in liquefaction residues of sewage sludge. Bioresour Technol 102:10346–10351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Huang S, Tu J, Liu H, Hua M, Liao Q, Feng J, Weng Z, Huang G (2009) Multivariate analysis of trace element concentrations in atmospheric deposition in the Yangtze River Delta, East China. Atmos Environ 43:5781–5790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Iran SCo (2017) Statistical Center of Iran. Available from: https://www.amar.org.ir/english
  24. Kaler NS, Kashyap P, Prasad H, Singh TJ (2017) Air pollution tolerance index (APTI) of tree species: a review. IJCS 5:716–720Google Scholar
  25. Kalinovic TS, Serbula SM, Radojevic AA, Kalinovic JV, Steharnik MM, Petrovic JV (2016) Elder, linden and pine biomonitoring ability of pollution emitted from the copper smelter and the tailings ponds. Geoderma 262:266–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Karakas B, Bianco RL, Rieger M (2000) Association of marginal leaf scorch with sodium accumulation in salt-stressed peach. Hortscience 35:83–84Google Scholar
  27. Keller T, Schwager H (1977) Air pollution and ascorbic acid. Forest Pathol 7:338–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kousar H, Nuthan K, Pavithra K, Adamsab M (2014) Analysis of biochemical parameters as tolerance index of some chosen plant species of Bhadravathi town. Int J Environ Sci 3:11–16Google Scholar
  29. Kulkarni P, Baron PA, Willeke K (2011) Aerosol measurement: principles, techniques, and applications. John Wiley & SonsGoogle Scholar
  30. Lovett GM, Tear TH, Evers DC, Findlay SE, Cosby BJ, Dunscomb JK, Driscoll CT, Weathers KC (2009) Effects of air pollution on ecosystems and biological diversity in the eastern United States. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1162:99–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lu X, Wang L, Li LY, Lei K, Huang L, Kang D (2010) Multivariate statistical analysis of heavy metals in street dust of Baoji, NW China. J Hazard Mater 173:744–749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Majolagbe A, Paramole A, Majolagbe H, Oyewole O, Sowemimo M (2010) Concentration of heavy metals in tree barks as indicator of atmospheric pollution in Oyo Town, Southwest Nigeria. Scholars Res Libr Arch Appl Sci Res 2:170–178Google Scholar
  33. Marrugo-Negrete J, Pinedo-Hernández J, Díez S (2017) Assessment of heavy metal pollution, spatial distribution and origin in agricultural soils along the Sinú River Basin, Colombia. Environ Res 154:380–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Miri M, Allahabadi A, Ghaffari HR, Fathabadi ZA, Raisi Z, Rezai M, Aval MY (2016) Ecological risk assessment of heavy metal (HM) pollution in the ambient air using a new bio-indicator. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:14210–14220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mohammadi A, Hajizadeh Y, Taghipour H, Mosleh Arani A, Mokhtari M, Fallahzadeh H (2018) Assessment of metals in agricultural soil of surrounding 1 areas of Urmia Lake, northwest Iran: a preliminary ecological risk assessment and source identification. An International Journal, Hum Ecol Risk Assess (in press)Google Scholar
  36. Mokhtari M, Miri M, Mohammadi A, Khorsandi H, Hajizadeh Y, Abdolahnejad A (2015) Assessment of air quality index and health impact of PM10, PM2. 5 and SO2 in Yazd, Iran. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci 25:14–23Google Scholar
  37. Nikoonahad A, Naserifar R, Alipour V, Poursafar A, Miri M, Ghafari HR, Abdolahnejad A, Nemati S, Mohammadi A (2017) Assessment of hospitalization and mortality from exposure to PM10 using AirQ modeling in Ilam. Iran Environ Sci Pollut Res:1–6Google Scholar
  38. Ninave S, Chaudhari P, Gajghate D, Tarar J (2001) Foliar biochemical features of plants as indicators of air pollution. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 67:133–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Norouzi S, Khademi H, Cano AF, Acosta JA (2015) Using plane tree leaves for biomonitoring of dust borne heavy metals: a case study from Isfahan, Central Iran. Ecol Indic 57:64–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ogunkunle C, Suleiman L, Oyedeji S, Awotoye O, Fatoba P (2015) Assessing the air pollution tolerance index and anticipated performance index of some tree species for biomonitoring environmental health. Agrofor Syst 89:447–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ozturk A, Yarci C, Ozyigit II (2017) Assessment of heavy metal pollution in Istanbul using plant (Celtis australis L.) and soil assays. Biotechnol Biotechnol Equip 31:948–954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pandey AK, Pandey M, Tripathi B (2016) Assessment of air pollution tolerance index of some plants to develop vertical gardens near street canyons of a polluted tropical city. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 134:358–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pathak V, Tripathi B, Mishra V (2011) Evaluation of anticipated performance index of some tree species for green belt development to mitigate traffic generated noise. Urban For Urban Green 10:61–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Popek R, Łukowski A, Bates C, Oleksyn J (2017) Particulate matter, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons accumulation on the leaves of Tilia cordata Mill. in five Polish cities with different level of air pollution. Int J Phytoremediation 19:1134–1141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Prajapati SK, Tripathi B (2008) Anticipated performance index of some tree species considered for green belt development in and around an urban area: a case study of Varanasi city, India. J Environ Manag 88:1343–1349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Qing X, Yutong Z, Shenggao L (2015) Assessment of heavy metal pollution and human health risk in urban soils of steel industrial city (Anshan), Liaoning, Northeast China. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 120:377–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ragosta M, Caggiano R, Macchiato M, Sabia S, Trippetta S (2008) Trace elements in daily collected aerosol: level characterization and source identification in a four-year study. Atmos Res 89:206–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rai PK (2013) Environmental magnetic studies of particulates with special reference to biomagnetic monitoring using roadside plant leaves. Atmos Environ 72:113–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rai PK (2016) Impacts of particulate matter pollution on plants: implications for environmental biomonitoring. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 129:120–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Rucandio MI, Petit-Domínguez MD, Fidalgo-Hijano C, García-Giménez R (2011) Biomonitoring of chemical elements in an urban environment using arboreal and bush plant species. Environ Sci Pollut Res 18:51–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Scholz F, Reck S (1977) Effects of acids on forest trees as measured by titration in vitro, inheritance of buffering capacity in Picea abies. Water Air Soil Pollut 8:41–45Google Scholar
  52. Sen D, Bhandari M (1978) Ecological and water relation to two Citrullus spp. Indian Arid Zone Environ Physiol Ecol Plants:203–228Google Scholar
  53. Serbula SM, Miljkovic DD, Kovacevic RM, Ilic AA (2012) Assessment of airborne heavy metal pollution using plant parts and topsoil. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 76:209–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Serbula SM, Kalinovic TS, Ilic AA, Kalinovic JV, Steharnik MM (2013) Assessment of airborne heavy metal pollution using Pinus spp. and Tilia spp. Aerosol Air Qual Res 13:563–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Singh S, Rao D, Agrawal M, Pandey J, Naryan D (1991) Air pollution tolerance index of plants. J Environ Manag 32:45–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Steubing L (1976): Niedere und hohere Pflanzen als Indikatoren fur Immissionsbelastungen. Landschaft and StadtGoogle Scholar
  57. Taghipour H, Mosaferi M, Armanfar F, Gaemmagami S (2013) Heavy metals pollution in the soils of suburban areas in big cities: a case study. Intl J Environ Sci Technol 10:243–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Taylor S (1964) Abundance of chemical elements in the continental crust: a new table. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 28:1273–1285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Teiri H, Pourzamani H, Hajizadeh Y (2018) Phytoremediation of VOCs from indoor air by ornamental potted plants: a pilot study using a palm species under the controlled environment. ChemosphereGoogle Scholar
  60. Tomašević M, Aničić M, Jovanović L, Perić-Grujić A, Ristić M (2011) Deciduous tree leaves in trace elements biomonitoring: a contribution to methodology. Ecol Indic 11:1689–1695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Tsega YC, Prasad AD (2014) Variation in air pollution tolerance index and anticipated performance index of roadside plants in Mysore, India. J Environ Bio 35:185Google Scholar
  62. United Stated EPA (2007) Method 6010C (SW-846): inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, Revision 3. https://www.epa.gov/homeland-security-research/epa-method-6010c-sw-846-inductively-coupled-plasma-atomic-emission
  63. Upadhyaya CP, Venkatesh J, Gururani MA, Asnin L, Sharma K, Ajappala H, Park SW (2011) Transgenic potato overproducing L-ascorbic acid resisted an increase in methylglyoxal under salinity stress via maintaining higher reduced glutathione level and glyoxalase enzyme activity. Biotechnol Lett 33:2297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Verein DeutscherIngenieure, Düsseldorf (2007) Biological measuring techniques for the determination and evaluation of effects of air pollution on plants (bioindication). VDI3957. Part 11:6–12Google Scholar
  65. Wan L, Shi Y, Li X, He F, Jia Y (2009) Alterations in leaf cellular ultra-structure of three varieties of Lolium perenne subjected to high temperature and soil drought stress. Acta Prataculturae Sinica 18:25–31Google Scholar
  66. Xu J, Jing B, Zhang K, Cui Y, Malkinson D, Kopel D, Song K, Da L (2017) Heavy metal contamination of soil and tree-ring in urban forest around highway in Shanghai, China. Hum Ecol Risk Assess: An Int J 23:1745–1762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Yaylalı-Abanuz G (2011) Heavy metal contamination of surface soil around Gebze industrial area, Turkey. Microchem J 99:82–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Zhang P-q, Liu Y-j, Chen X, Yang Z, Zhu M-h, Li Y-p (2016) Pollution resistance assessment of existing landscape plants on Beijing streets based on air pollution tolerance index method. Ecotoxicol and Environ Saf 132:212–223Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amir Mohammadi
    • 1
  • Mehdi Mokhtari
    • 1
  • Asghar Mosleh Arani
    • 2
  • Hassan Taghipour
    • 3
  • Yaghoub Hajizadeh
    • 4
  • Hossein Fallahzadeh
    • 5
  1. 1.Environmental Science and Technology Research Center, Department of Environmental Health EngineeringShahid Sadoughi University of Medical SciencesYazdIran
  2. 2.Department of Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources and Desert StudiesYazd UniversityYazdIran
  3. 3.Health and Environment Research Center, Department of Environmental Health EngineeringTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  4. 4.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of HealthIsfahan University of Medical SciencesIsfahanIran
  5. 5.Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Research Center of Prevention and Epidemiology of Non-Communicable Disease, Faculty of HealthShahid Sadoughi University of Medical SciencesYazdIran

Personalised recommendations