Reduced bioavailability and plant uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soil slurry amended with biochars pyrolyzed under various temperatures
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Biochar has high potential for organic pollutant immobilization due to its powerful sorption capacity. Nevertheless, potential risks may exist when biochar-sorbed organic pollutants are bioavailable. A direct plant exposure assay in combination with an organic solvent extraction experiment was carried out in this study to investigate the bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with the application of pine needle biochars pyrolyzed under different temperatures (100, 300, 400, and 700 °C; referred as P100–P700 accordingly). Biochar reduced solvent extractability and plant uptake of PAHs including naphthalene (Naph), acenaphthene (Acen), phenanthrene (Phen), and pyrene (Pyr), especially for three- and four-ring PAHs (Phen and Pyr) with high-temperature biochar. Plant uptake assay validates with organic solvent extraction for bioavailability assessment. Sorption of PAHs to biochars reduced plant uptake of PAHs in roots and shoots by lowering freely dissolved PAHs. Aging process reduced the bioavailability of PAHs that were bound to biochar. High pyrolysis temperature can be recommended for biochar preparation for purpose of effectively immobilizing PAHs, whereas application of moderate-temperature biochar for PAH immobilization should concern the potential risks of desorption and bioavailability of PAHs.
KeywordsBiochar Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Bioavailability Plant uptake Aging Pyrolysis temperature
This project was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant nos. 21425730, 21537005, 21621005, and 21607125), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant no. 2014CB441106), and the Postdoctoral Science Foundation of China (Grant no. 2015M581943).
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