Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 17, pp 17012–17024 | Cite as

Effectiveness of an improved form of insecticide-based diatomaceous earth against four stored grain pests on different grain commodities

  • Nadia SaeedEmail author
  • Muhammad Farooq
  • Muhammad ShakeelEmail author
  • Misbah Ashraf
Research Article


The effectiveness of Grain-Guard, an improved form of diatomaceous earth (DE), with low risk to the environment, was evaluated against the storage pests Liposcelis paeta, Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Rhyzopertha dominica, and Tribolium castaneum on four grain commodities, wheat, rice, maize and sorghum. The overall mortality of stored grain pests increased with the rise of application rate and exposure intervals of diatomaceous earth and decreased over 120 days of post-treatment period. Our results revealed that mortality of adults 14 days post-disclosure was > 80% on wheat at the start of post-treatment than rice, maize, and sorghum, respectively. During the first 60 days of post-treatment, adult mortality increased, whereas later on, a steady decrease in adult mortality was observed. Considerable differences in dose rates were observed on mortality levels along with grain commodities. Following 14 days of exposure, all adults of four species were dead on wheat at 100 ppm and on rice at 150 ppm except maize and sorghum. The suppression of progeny was noticeably higher at the beginning of post-treatment duration while after 60-days of post-treatment, progeny numbers started to increase with the rise in post-treatment durations. This new improved DE formulation was found to be effective at dose rates that are extensively lower than required with previous DE formulations and will contribute to lower the risk of health and environment.


Grain-Guard Stored grain pests Residual efficacy 


Author contribution

NS, MF, MA, and MS conceived and designed the research. NS and MA conducted the experiments. NS, MF, and MS analyzed the data. NS, MF, MA, and MS wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Agronomy, Food, Natural resources, Animals and EnvironmentUniversity of PaduaLegnaroItaly
  2. 2.Cotton Research StationAyub Agricultural Research InstituteFaisalabadPakistan
  3. 3.Key Laboratory of Bio-Pesticide Innovation and Application of Guangdong Province, College of AgricultureSouth China Agricultural UniversityGuangzhouChina
  4. 4.Entomological Research Institute, Ayub Agricultural Research InstituteFaisalabadPakistan

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