Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 17, pp 17012–17024 | Cite as

Effectiveness of an improved form of insecticide-based diatomaceous earth against four stored grain pests on different grain commodities

  • Nadia Saeed
  • Muhammad Farooq
  • Muhammad Shakeel
  • Misbah Ashraf
Research Article

Abstract

The effectiveness of Grain-Guard, an improved form of diatomaceous earth (DE), with low risk to the environment, was evaluated against the storage pests Liposcelis paeta, Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Rhyzopertha dominica, and Tribolium castaneum on four grain commodities, wheat, rice, maize and sorghum. The overall mortality of stored grain pests increased with the rise of application rate and exposure intervals of diatomaceous earth and decreased over 120 days of post-treatment period. Our results revealed that mortality of adults 14 days post-disclosure was > 80% on wheat at the start of post-treatment than rice, maize, and sorghum, respectively. During the first 60 days of post-treatment, adult mortality increased, whereas later on, a steady decrease in adult mortality was observed. Considerable differences in dose rates were observed on mortality levels along with grain commodities. Following 14 days of exposure, all adults of four species were dead on wheat at 100 ppm and on rice at 150 ppm except maize and sorghum. The suppression of progeny was noticeably higher at the beginning of post-treatment duration while after 60-days of post-treatment, progeny numbers started to increase with the rise in post-treatment durations. This new improved DE formulation was found to be effective at dose rates that are extensively lower than required with previous DE formulations and will contribute to lower the risk of health and environment.

Keywords

Grain-Guard Stored grain pests Residual efficacy 

Notes

Author contribution

NS, MF, MA, and MS conceived and designed the research. NS and MA conducted the experiments. NS, MF, and MS analyzed the data. NS, MF, MA, and MS wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Abbott W (1925) A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. J Econ Entomol 18:265–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aldryhim YN (1993) Combination of classes of wheat and environmental factors affecting the efficacy of amorphous silica dust, Dryacide, against Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) J Stored Prod Res 29:271–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Almasi R, Posloncec D, Korunic Z (2013) Possible new insecticides in the protection of stored wheat. Bulgarian J Agr Sci 19:1076–1084Google Scholar
  4. Arthur F, Credland P, Armitage D, Bell C, Cogan P, Highley E (2003) Optimization of inert dusts used as grain protectants as residual surface treatments. Proceedings 8th International Working Conference of Stored Product Protection, pp. 629–634Google Scholar
  5. Arthur FH (2000) Toxicity of diatomaceous earth to red flour beetles and confused flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): effects of temperature and relative humidity. J Econ Entomol 93:526–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arthur FH (2002) Survival of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) on wheat treated with diatomaceous earth: impact of biological and environmental parameters on product efficacy. J Stored Prod Res 38:305–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arthur FH, Throne JE (2003) Efficacy of diatomaceous earth to control internal infestations of rice weevil and maize weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). J Econ Entomol 96:510–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ashraf M, Wakil W, Hafeez F, Farooq M (2016) Persistence and insecticidal efficacy of a diatomaceous earth formulation, inert-PMS, in stored wheat grain against Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens), Liposcelis paeta Pearman, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Turk J Entomol 40:107–115Google Scholar
  9. Ashraf M, Farooq M, Shakeel M, Din N, Hussain S, Saeed N, Shakeel Q, Rajput NA (2017) Influence of entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae, alone and in combination with diatomaceous earth and thiamethoxam on mortality, progeny production, mycosis, and sporulation of the stored grain insect pests. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24(36):28165–28174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Athanassiou C, Kavallieratos N, Tsaganou F, Vayias B, Dimizas C, Buchelos CT (2003) Effect of grain type on the insecticidal efficacy of SilicoSec against Sitophilus oryzae (L.)(Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Crop Prot 22:1141–1147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Athanassiou C, Kavallieratos N (2005) Insecticidal effect and adherence of PyriSec® in different grain commodities. Crop Prot 24:703–710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Athanassiou C (2006) Toxicity of beta cyfluthrin applied alone or in combination with diatomaceous earth against adults of Sitophilus oryzae (L.)(Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Tribolium confusum DuVal (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on stored wheat. Crop Prot 25:788–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Athanassiou C, Korunic Z (2007) Evaluation of two new diatomaceous earth formulations, enhanced with abamectin and bitterbarkomycin, against four stored-grain beetle species. J Stored Prod Res 43:468–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Athanassiou CG, Kavallieratos NG, Andris NS (2004) Insecticidal effect of three diatomaceous earth formulations against adults of Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on oat, rye, and triticale. J Econ Entomol 97:2160–2167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Athanassiou CG, Kavallieratos NG, Vayias BJ, Tsakiri JB, Mikeli NH, Meletsis CM, Tomanović Ž (2008) Persistence and efficacy of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) and diatomaceous earth against Sitophilus oryzae (L.)(Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Rhyzopertha dominica (F.)(Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) on wheat and maize. Crop Prot 27:1303–1311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Athanassiou CG, Arthur FH, Opit GP, Throne JE (2009) Insecticidal effect of diatomaceous earth against three species of stored-product psocids on maize, rice, and wheat. J Econ Entomol 102:1673–1680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Athanassiou CG, Arthur FH, Throne JE, Opit GP, Hasan MM, Aikins MJ, Kavallieratos NG (2010) Efficacy of insecticides for control of stored-product psocids. Julius-Kühn-Archiv 425:805Google Scholar
  18. Athanassiou CG, Kavallieratos NG, Vayias BJ, Tomanović Ž, Petrović A, Rozman V, Adler C, Korunic Z, Milovanović D (2011) Laboratory evaluation of diatomaceous earth deposits mined from several locations in central and southeastern Europe as potential protectants against coleopteran grain pests. Crop Prot 30:329–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Athanassiou CG, Kavallieratos NG, Lazzari FA (2014) Insecticidal effect of Keepdry® for the control of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) on wheat under laboratory conditions. J Stored Prod Res 59:133–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Athanassiou CG, Rumbos CI, Sakka MK, Vayias BJ, Stephou VK, Nakas CT (2016) Insecticidal effect of the combined application of spinosad, Beauveria bassiana and diatomaceous earth for the control of Tribolium confusum. Biocontrol Sci Tech 26:809–819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ceruti FC, Lazzari SMN (2005) Combination of diatomaceous earth and powder deltamethrin for insect control in stored corn. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 49(4):580–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cook DA, Wakefield ME, Bryning GP (2008) The physical action of three diatomaceous earths against the cuticle of the flour mite Acarus siro L.(Acari: acaridae). Pest Manag Sci 64:141–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Demissie G, Tefera T, Tadesse A (2008) Efficacy of Silicosec, filter cake and wood ash against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on three maize genotypes. J Stored Prod Res 44:227–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Doumbia M, Douan BG, Kwadjo KE, Kra DK, Martel V, Dagnogo M (2014) Effectiveness of diatomaceous earth for control of Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Tribolium castaneum and Palorus subdepressus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). J Stored Prod Res 57:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fields P, Korunic Z (2000) The effect of grain moisture content and temperature on the efficacy of diatomaceous earths from different geographical locations against stored-product beetles. J Stored Prod Res 36:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Greenspan L (1977) Humidity fixed points of binary saturated aqueous solutions. J Res Natl Bur Stand 81:89–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hasan M, Ali Q, Zaman S, Rehman H (2016) Entomocidal effect of diatomaceous earth and thiamethoxam alone and in combination against Tribolium castaneum. In: Navarro S, Jayas DS, Alagusundaram K (eds) proceedings of the 10th international conference on controlled atmosphere and fumigation in stored products (CAF2016). CAF Permanent Committee Secretariat, Winnipeg, pp 472–476Google Scholar
  28. Huang F, Subramanyam BH (2007) Effectiveness of spinosad against seven major stored-grain insects on corn. Insect Sci 14:225e230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kavallieratos NG, Athanassiou CG, Pashalidou FG, Andris NS, Tomanović Ž (2005) Influence of grain type on the insecticidal efficacy of two diatomaceous earth formulations against Rhyzopertha dominica (F)(Coleoptera: Bostrychidae). Pest Manag Sci 61:660–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kavallieratos NG, Athanassiou CG, Vayias BJ, Mihail SB, Tomanović Ž (2009) Insecticidal efficacy of abamectin against three stored-product insect pests: influence of dose rate, temperature, commodity, and exposure interval. J Econ Entomol 102:1352–1359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kavallieratos NG, Athanassiou CG, Vayias BJ, Betsi PCC (2010) Insecticidal efficacy of fipronil against four stored-product insect pests: influence of commodity, dose, exposure interval, relative humidity and temperature. Pest Manag Sci 66:640–649Google Scholar
  32. Kavallieratos NG, Athanassiou CG, Hatzikonstantinou AN, Kavallieratou HN (2011) Abiotic and biotic factors affect efficacy of chlorfenapyr for control of stored-product insect pests. J Food Prot 74:1288e1299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kavallieratos NG, Athanassiou CG, Zlatiko K, Mikeli NH (2015) Evaluation of three novel diatomaceous earths against three stored-grain beetle species on wheat and maize. Crop Prot 75:132e138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kljajić P, Perić I (2009) Residual effects of deltamethrin and malathion on different populations of Sitophilus granarius (L.) on treated wheat grains. J Stored Prod Res 45:45–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Koruni Z, Fields PG, Kovacs MIP, Noll JS, Lukow OM, Demianyk CJ et al (1996) The effect of diatomaceous earth on grain quality. Postharvest Biol Technol 9:373–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Korunic Z (1998) Review diatomaceous earths, a group of natural insecticides. J Stored Prod Res 34:87–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Korunić Z, Rozman V (2010) A synergistic mixture of diatomaceous earth and deltamethrin to control stored grain insects. In 10th International Working Conference on Stored Product ProtectionGoogle Scholar
  38. Korunic Z (2013) Diatomaceous earths-natural insecticides. Pestic Phytomed 28:77e95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Korunić Z, Almaši R, Andrić G, Kljajić P, Fields PG, Wakil W, Ziaee M (2015) Variation in the susceptibility of stored-product insects from five locations to two diatomaceous earth based formulations. Proceedings of the 11th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection, Chiang Mai, Thailand, 808–818Google Scholar
  40. Korunić ZK, Rozman V, Liška A, Lucić P (2016) A review of natural insecticides based on diatomaceous earths. Poljoprivreda 22:10–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. LaHue DW (1972) The retention of diatomaceous earth and silica aerogels on shelled corn, hard winter wheat and sorghum grain. Agricultural Research Service, United States, Department of Agriculture, Manhattan, 51–44, p 8 Google Scholar
  42. Machekano H, Mvumi BM, Chinwada P, Richardson-Kageler SJ, Rwafa R (2017) Efficacy of diatomaceous earths and their low-dose combinations with spinosad or deltamethrin against three beetle pests of stored-maize. J Stored Prod Res 72:128–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. McGaughey WH (1972) Diatomaceous earth for confused flour beetle and rice weevil control in rough, brown, and milled rice. J Econ Entomol 65:1427–1428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mutambuki K (2013) The influence of grain moisture content on the efficacy of silica dusts on Prostephanus truncatus (horn) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) on Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). J Stored Prod Postharvest Res 4:23e29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mvumi BM, Stathers TE (2003) Challenges of grain protection in sub-Saharan Africa: the case of diatomaceous earths, 6 pp. Proceedings of the Food Africa Internet based Forum 31 March - 11 April 2003. Available on http://foodafrica.nri.org/security/cameroon/abstracts/BrightonMvumi.pdf. Accessed 12 December 2016
  46. Mvumi BM, Stathers TE, Kaparadza V, Mukoyi F, Masiiwa P, Jowah P, Riwa W (2006) Comparative insecticidal efficacy of five of five raw diatomaceous earths against three tropical stored grain coleopteran pests: Sitophilus zeamais, Rhyzopertha Dominica and Tribolium castaneum. In: Lorini I, Bacaltchuk B, Beckel H, Deckers D, Sundfeld E, dos Santos JP, Biagi JD, Celaro JC, Faroni LRD’A, Bortolini L, de OF, Sartori MR, Elias MC, Guedes RNC, da Fonseca RG, Scussel VM (Eds.) Proceedings of the 9th international working conference on stored product protection, pp. 868e876, 15 to 18 October 2006, Campinas, S~ao Paulo, BrazilGoogle Scholar
  47. Nwaubani SI, Opit GP, Otitoduna GO, Adesidaa MA (2014) Efficacy of two Nigeria-derived diatomaceous earths against Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) on wheat. J Stored Prod Res 59:9–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Phillips TW, Throne JE (2010) Biorational approaches to managing stored-product insects. Annu Rev Entomol 55:375–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rosell G, Quero C, Coll J, Guerrero A (2008) Biorational insecticides in pest management. J Pestic Sci 33:103–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Rozman V, Korunić Z, Halamić J, Liška A, Baličević R, Galović I, Lucić P (2015) Development of new natural insecticide formulations based on inert dusts and botanicals to replace synthetic, conventional insecticides presentation of the research project of Croatian Science Foundation (in Croatian). Proceedings of the 27th scientific and educational seminar DDD and ZUPP 2015 Disinfection, Disinfestation and Deratization and Protection of Stored Agricultural Products, Zagreb, Croatia, 197–201Google Scholar
  51. Sadeghi A, Van Damme EJ, Peumans WJ, Smagghe G (2006) Deterrent activity of plant lectins on cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) oviposition. Phytochemistry 67:2078–2084CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Shakeel M, Farooq M, Nasim W, Akram W, Khan FZA, Jaleel W, Zhu X, Yin H, Li S, Fahad S (2017) Environment polluting conventional chemical control compared to an environmentally friendly IPM approach for control of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), in China: a review. Environ Sci Pol Res 24:14537–14550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sokal R, Rohlf F (1995) Biometry, 3rd editon. Freeman, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  54. Stathers TE (2003) Combinations to enhance the efficacy of diatomaceous earths against the larger grain borer, Prostephanus truncatus (Horn). In: Credland PF, Armitage DM, Bell CH, Cogan PM, Highley E (eds) Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Stored-Product Protection, York, 22–26 July2002–2003. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 252–257Google Scholar
  55. Stathers T, Denniff M, Golob P (2004) The efficacy and persistence of diatomaceous earths admixed with commodity against four tropical stored product beetle pests. J Stored Prod Res 40:113–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Stathers T, Riwa W, Mvumi B, Mosha R, Kitandu L, Mngara K, Kaoneka B, Morris M (2008) Do diatomaceous earths have potential as grain protectants for small-holder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa? The case of Tanzania. Crop Prot 27:44–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Subramanyam B, Roesli R (2000) Inert dusts. In: Subramanyam B, Hagstrum DW (eds) Alternatives to pesticides in stored-product IPM. Springer, Boston, pp 321–380Google Scholar
  58. Vardeman EA, Arthur FH, Nechols JR, Campbell JF (2007) Efficacy of surface applications with diatomaceous earth to control Rhyzopertha dominica (F.)(Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in stored wheat. J Stored Prod Res 43:335–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Vassilakos TN, Athanassiou CG, Thiropolous NG (2015) Persistence and efficacy of spinetoram against major stored grain beetles on wheat. Crop Prot 69:44e51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Vayias B, Athanassiou C (2004) Factors affecting the insecticidal efficacy of the diatomaceous earth formulation SilicoSec against adults and larvae of the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum DuVal (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Crop Prot 23:565–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Vayias B, Athanassiou C, Buchelos CT (2006) Evaluation of three diatomaceous earth and one natural pyrethrum formulations against pupae of Tribolium confusum DuVal (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on wheat and flour. Crop Prot 25:766–772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Vayias BJ, Stephou VK (2009) Factors affecting the insecticidal efficacy of an enhanced diatomaceous earth formulation against three stored-product insect species. J Stored Prod Res 45:226–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Vayias BJ, Athanassiou CG, Buchelos CT (2009) Effectiveness of spinosad combined with diatomaceous earth against different European strains of Tribolium confusum du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): influence of commodity and temperature. J Stored Prod Res 45:165e176Google Scholar
  64. Wakil W, Riasat T, Ashfaq M (2012) Residual efficacy of thiamethoxam, Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, and diatomaceous earth formulation against Rhyzopertha dominica F.(Coleoptera: Bostrychidae). J Pest Sci 85:341–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wakil W, Riasat T, Lord JC (2013) Effects of combined thiamethoxam and diatomaceous earth on mortality and progeny production of four Pakistani populations of Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) on wheat, rice and maize. J Stored Prod Res 52:28–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Wakil W, Schmitt T (2014) Field trials on the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana, diatomaceous earth and Imidacloprid for the protection of wheat grains from four major stored grain insect pests. J Stored Prod Res 64:160–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Agronomy, Food, Natural resources, Animals and EnvironmentUniversity of PaduaLegnaroItaly
  2. 2.Cotton Research StationAyub Agricultural Research InstituteFaisalabadPakistan
  3. 3.Key Laboratory of Bio-Pesticide Innovation and Application of Guangdong Province, College of AgricultureSouth China Agricultural UniversityGuangzhouChina
  4. 4.Entomological Research Institute, Ayub Agricultural Research InstituteFaisalabadPakistan

Personalised recommendations