Evaluation of iron loading in four types of hepatopancreatic cells of the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus using ferrocene derivatives and iron supplements
- 71 Downloads
The mangrove crab Ucides cordatus is a bioindicator of aquatic contamination. In this work, the iron availability and redox activity of saccharide-coated mineral iron supplements (for both human and veterinary use) and ferrocene derivatives in Saline Ucides Buffer (SUB) medium were assessed. The transport of these metallodrugs by four different hepatopancreatic cell types (embryonic (E), resorptive (R), fibrillar (F), and blister (B)) of U. cordatus were measured. Organic coated iron minerals (iron supplements) were stable against strong chelators (calcein and transferrin). Ascorbic acid efficiently mediated the release of iron only from ferrocene compounds, leading to redox-active species. Ferrous iron and iron supplements were efficient in loading iron to all hepatopancreatic cell types. In contrast, ferrocene derivatives were loaded only in F and B cell types. Acute exposition to the iron compounds resulted in cell viability of 70–95%, and to intracellular iron levels as high as 0.40 μmol L−1 depending upon the compound and the cell line. The easiness that iron from iron metallodrugs was loaded/transported into U. cordatus hepatopancreatic cells reinforces a cautionary approach to the widespread disposal and use of highly bioavailable iron species as far as the long-term environmental welfare is concerned.
KeywordsIron Ucides cordatus Fluorescence Hepatopancreas Mangrove crab
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
The authors acknowledge the funding provided through the CAPES and FAPESP (Brazilian government agencies). H.A.V. and P.O. received a Doctoral Fellowship from CAPES.
- Chavez-Crooker P, Garrido N, Ahearn GA (2001) Copper transport by lobster hepatopancreatic epithelial cells separated by centrifugal elutriation: measurements with the fluorescent dye Phen Green. J Exp Biol 204:1433–1444Google Scholar
- Doherty GJ, McMahon HT (2009) Mechanisms of endocytosis. Annu Rev Biochem 78:857–902. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.biochem.78.081307.110540 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kasprzyk-Hordern B, Dinsdale RM, Guwy AJ (2009) The removal of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, endocrine disruptors and illicit drugs during wastewater treatment and its impact on the quality of receiving waters. Water Res 43:363–380. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2008.10.047 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Huebers HA, Huebers E, Finch CA, Martin AW (1982) Characterization of an invertebrate transferrin from the crab Cancer magister (Arthropoda)Google Scholar
- Kang X, Mu S, Li W, Zhao N (2012) Toxic effects of cadmium on crabs and shrimps. In: Toxicity and drug testing. InTech,Google Scholar
- Marcolin CR, Carqueija CRG, de Tozetto SO et al (2008) Alterações morfológicas do hepatopâncreas de Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Ocypodidae) em relação aos estádios de intermuda e pré-muda inicial. Rev Bras Zoociências 10:97–104Google Scholar
- Muench KH (1989) Hemochromatosis and infection: alcohol and iron, oysters and sepsis. Am J Med 87:40N–43NGoogle Scholar
- Ortega P, Santos RA, Lacouth P, Rozas EE, Custódio MR, Zanotto FP (2014b) Cytochemical characterization of gill and hepatopancreatic cells of the crab Ucides cordatus (Crustacea, Brachyura) validated by cell metal transport. Iheringia Série Zool 104:347–354. https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-476620141043347354 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ortega P, Vitorino HA, Moreira RG, Pinheiro MAA, Almeida AA, Custódio MR, Zanotto FP (2016) Physiological differences in the crab Ucides cordatus from two populations inhabiting mangroves with different levels of cadmium contamination. Environ Toxicol Chem 9999:1–11. https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.3537 Google Scholar
- Pinheiro MAA, Duarte LFA, Toledo TR, Adam ML, Torres RA (2013) Habitat monitoring and genotoxicity in Ucides cordatus (Crustacea: Ucididae), as tools to manage a mangrove reserve in southeastern Brazil. Environ Monit Assess 185:8273–8285. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-013-3172-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Praschberger M, Haider K, Cornelius C, Schitegg M, Sturm B, Goldenberg H, Scheiber-Mojdehkar B (2015) Iron sucrose and ferric carboxymaltose: no correlation between physicochemical stability and biological activity. Biometals 28:35–50. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10534-014-9801-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Saravanan M, Suganya R, Ramesh M, Poopal RK, Gopalan N, Ponpandian N (2015) Iron oxide nanoparticles induced alterations in haematological, biochemical and ionoregulatory responses of an Indian major carp Labeo rohita. J Nanopart Res 17:274. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11051-015-3082-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar