Contribution to the understanding of biologic concentrations of arsenic in children living in an urban area from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
- 95 Downloads
There are few studies about children’s environmental exposure to arsenic (As) in Brazil, most of them being in mining regions. The objective of this study was to contribute to the understanding of biologic concentrations of arsenic in children living in an urban area, in Brazil. A study of arsenic concentrations in capillary blood (n = 270), nail (n = 261), and urine (n = 99) samples, in male and female children, 8 to 10 years old, from two public schools in Rio de Janeiro, was conducted. Socio-economic and health data were obtained through questionnaires. The nail and capillary blood analysis were performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), while urine samples were analyzed using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). The median, geometric mean, and 95th percentiles of total arsenic concentrations were, respectively, 2.53, 2.40, and 3.58 μg/L in capillary blood; 0.09, 0.10, and 0.24 μg/g in nails; and 12.50, 10.97, and 39.45 μg/L in urine. The geometric mean of urinary arsenic level was above the values reported by international surveys for non-exposed populations. The arsenic concentrations in nails were compatible with the values found in national studies. These outcomes can contribute to the increase of knowledge on biologic concentrations of arsenic in children living in urban areas, in Brazil.
KeywordsArsenic Children’s health Environmental exposure Biomonitoring
TF is the principal investigator, planned and designed the study, administered questionnaires, and drafted the manuscript; VC is the principal investigator, helped to draft the manuscript; PB helped to carry out analysis of urine samples and measured arsenic concentrations and drafted the manuscript; AM helped to draft the manuscript; CA is the principal investigator, planned and designed the study, and drafted the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
All the legal guardians of all children were invited to a meeting at which they were fully informed about the aims of the study and asked whether they would be willing to permit their children to participate. All the legal guardians agreed to the processing of their children’s data and understood that this information was categorized as “sensitive data.” All the legal guardians were informed that data from the research protocol would be treated in an anonymous and collective way, with scientific methods and for scientific purposes in accordance with the principles of the Helsinki Declaration. Current research protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Public Health Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (n°: 45/2008; n°: 065905/2013).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Consent ethical forms were signed by the legal guardians of all participants. Current research protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Public Health Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (n°: 45/2008; n°: 065905/2013).
- ACGIH - American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Biological Exposure Indices (BEI) introduction. Available in: https://www.acgih.org/tlv-bei-guidelines/biological-exposure-indices-introduction. Accessed on 10 Nov 2017
- Argos M, Kalra T, Rathouz PJ, Chen Y, Pierce B, Parvez F, Islam T, Ahmed A, Rakibuz-Zaman M, Hasan R, Sarwar G, Slavkovich V, van Geen A, Graziano J, Ahsan H (2010) Arsenic exposure from drinking water, and all-cause and chronic-disease mortalities in Bangladesh (HEALS): a prospective cohort study. Lancet 376(9737):252–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- ATSDR Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007a) Toxicological profile for arsenic. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Services, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
- Batista BL, Rodrigues JL, Nines JA, Souza VC, Barbosa F Jr (2009) Exploiting dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DRC-ICP-MS) for sequential determination of trace elements in blood using a dilute-and-shoot procedure. Anal Chim Acta 639(1–2):13–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Canada (2010) Report on human biomonitoring of environmental chemicals in Canada. Results of the Canadian Health Measures Survey Cycle 1 (2007–2009)Google Scholar
- CDC - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009a) Fourth report on human exposure to environmental chemicals. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta Available in: http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport/. Accessed on 10 Jan 2017Google Scholar
- CDC - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009b) Capillary blood sampling protocol. Available in: https://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/publications/1997/pdf/c2.pdf. Accessed on 15 Mar 2017
- Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals (2011) Updated Tables, 2011. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta Available in: http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport/pdf/Updated_Tables.pdf Google Scholar
- Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals (2013) Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, Updated Tables, 2013. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport/ Google Scholar
- George CM (2015) Use of fingerstick blood collection for the measurement of blood arsenic. Columbia University, New York, New York Available in: http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/isee/PDF/isee11Abstract00670.pdf Google Scholar
- GerES IV - German Environmental Survey for Children (GerES IV) - Brief description of the project. Federal Environmental Agency 2008. Disponível em: www.umweltdundesamt.de/survey-e/index.htm
- Gilbert-Diamond D, Emond JA, Baker EL, Korrick SA, Karagas MR (2016) Relation between in Utero Arsenic Exposure and Birth Outcomes in a Cohort of Mothers and Their Newborns from New Hampshire. Environ Health Perspect 124(8). https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510065
- Gouveia N, Kuno R, Fróes Asmus C, Barrocas PRG, Lemes VRR, Tambellini AT, Meyer A, Câmara VM, Moreira JC, Oliveira AG, Chrisman JR, Cavalcanti VA, Kussumi TA, Nakano VM, Rocha SB, Oliveira MCC, Kimura IA, Barbosa F (2014) Pilot study of the First National Survey of Populations Exposed to Chemicals,2008-2009. Epidemiol Serv Saúde 23(3):553–558. https://doi.org/10.5123/S1679-49742014000300019
- Rodríguez-Barranco M, Lacasaña M, Aguilar-Garduño C, Alguacil J, Gil F, González-Alzaga B, Rojas-García A (2013) Association of arsenic, cadmium and manganese exposure with neurodevelopment and behavioural disorders in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sci Total Environ 454–455(2013):562–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Santos EC d O, de Jesus IM, Brabo E d S, Fayal KF, Filho GCS, Lima M d O, Miranda AMM, Mascarenhas AS, de Sá LLC, da Silva AP, Câmara V d M (2003) Exposição ao mercúrio e ao arsênio em Estados da Amazônia: síntese dos estudos do Instituto Evandro Chagas/FUNASA. Rev Bras Epidemiol São Paulo 6(2):171–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Schulz C, Angerer J, Ewers U, Heudorf U, Wilhelm M (2009) Revised and new reference values for environmental pollutants in urine or blood of children in Germany derived from the German Environmental Survey on Children 2003–2006 (GerES IV). Int J Hyg Environ Health 212(6):637–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- World Health Organization (WHO) (2001) Arsenic and arsenic compounds, 2nd edn. Environmental Health Criteria 224, GenevaGoogle Scholar