Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 15, pp 15057–15067 | Cite as

Impact of economic growth, nonrenewable and renewable energy consumption, and urbanization on carbon emissions in Sub-Saharan Africa

  • Imran HanifEmail author
Research Article


The present study explores the impact of economic growth; urban expansion; and consumption of fossil fuels, solid fuels, and renewable energy on environmental degradation in developing economies of Sub-Saharan Africa. To demonstrate its findings in detail, the study adopts a system generalized method of moment (GMM) on a panel of 34 emerging economies for the period from 1995 to 2015. The results describe that the consumption of fossil and solid fuels for cooking and expansion of urban areas are significantly contributing to carbon dioxide emissions, on one end, and stimulating air pollution, on the other. The results also exhibit an inverted U-shape relationship between per capita economic growth and carbon emissions. This relation confirms the existence of an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) in middle- and low-income economies of Sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, the findings reveal that the use of renewable energy alternatives improves air quality by controlling carbon emissions and lowering the direct interaction of households with toxic gases. Thus, the use of renewable energy alternatives helps the economies to achieve sustainable development targets.


Carbon emissions Developing economies Economic growth Fossil fuels Renewable energy Solid fuels 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EconomicsNUR International UniversityLahorePakistan

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