Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 16, pp 15368–15377 | Cite as

Role of fuel additives on reduction of NOX emission from a diesel engine powered by camphor oil biofuel

  • Thiyagarajan Subramanian
  • Edwin Geo Varuvel
  • Saravanan Ganapathy
  • S. Vedharaj
  • R. Vallinayagam
Research Article


The present study intends to explore the effect of the addition of fuel additives with camphor oil (CMO) on the characteristics of a twin-cylinder compression ignition (CI) engine. The lower viscosity and boiling point of CMO when compared to diesel could improve the fuel atomization, evaporation, and air/fuel mixing process. However, the lower cetane index of CMO limits its use as a drop in fuel for diesel in CI engine. In general, NOX emission increases for less viscous and low cetane (LVLC) fuels due to pronounced premixed combustion phase. To improve the ignition characteristics and decrease NOX emissions, fuel additives such as diglyme (DGE)—a cetane enhancer, cumene (CU)—an antioxidant, and eugenol (EU) and acetone (A)—bio-additives, are added 10% by volume with CMO. The engine used for the experimentation is a twin-cylinder tractor engine that runs at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. The engine was operated with diesel initially to attain warm-up condition, which facilitates the operation of neat CMO. At full load condition, brake thermal efficiency (BTE) for CMO is higher (29.6%) than that of diesel (28.1%), while NOX emission is increased by 9.4%. With DGE10 (10% DGE + 90% CMO), the ignition characteristics of CMO are improved and BTE is increased to 31.7% at full load condition. With EU10 (10% EU + 90% CMO) and A10 (10% A + 90% CMO), NOX emission is decreased by 24.6 and 17.8% when compared to diesel, while BTE is comparable to diesel. While HC and CO emission decreased for DGE10 and CU10, they increased for EU10 and A10 when compared to baseline diesel and CMO.


Camphor oil Fuel additives Biofuel Diesel engine combustion and emission 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thiyagarajan Subramanian
    • 1
  • Edwin Geo Varuvel
    • 1
  • Saravanan Ganapathy
    • 2
  • S. Vedharaj
    • 3
  • R. Vallinayagam
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Automobile EngineeringSRM UniversityChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringAnnamalai UniversityChidambaramIndia
  3. 3.Clean Combustion Research Center (CCRC)KAUSTThuwalSaudi Arabia

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