Performance and mechanism of fluoride adsorption from groundwater by lanthanum-modified pomelo peel biochar
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To obtain an economical and effective adsorbent for fluoride removal, lanthanum-loaded pomelo peel biochar (PPBC-La) was synthesized using a facile approach. The batch adsorption experiments were investigated to determine adsorbent performance. The PPBC-La and its pristine biochar (PPBC) were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), zeta potential, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) methods. Experimental results showed that the adsorption data were described well by the pseudo-second-order kinetic and Freundlich isotherm models. The maximum fluoride adsorption capacity for PPBC-La was found to be 19.86 mg/g at 25 °C and pH 6.5. The PPBC-La worked well at pH 2.4–9.6 and carried positive charge at pH < 5.8. The presence of SO42−, Cl−, and NO3− had a slight effect on fluoride uptake except HCO3− and PO43−. The real groundwater study testified that 9.8 mg/L of fluoride was removed effectively at 1.0 g/L of dosage and pH 5.2. The regeneration results revealed that the PPBC-La had a good reusability. According to FTIR, XPS analysis and the anion exchange experiment, anions (NO3− and OH−) exchange with fluoride ions was mainly responsible for fluoride adsorption.
KeywordsPomelo peel Biochar Lanthanum Defluoridation Adsorption
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