Performance and mechanism of fluoride adsorption from groundwater by lanthanum-modified pomelo peel biochar
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To obtain an economical and effective adsorbent for fluoride removal, lanthanum-loaded pomelo peel biochar (PPBC-La) was synthesized using a facile approach. The batch adsorption experiments were investigated to determine adsorbent performance. The PPBC-La and its pristine biochar (PPBC) were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), zeta potential, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) methods. Experimental results showed that the adsorption data were described well by the pseudo-second-order kinetic and Freundlich isotherm models. The maximum fluoride adsorption capacity for PPBC-La was found to be 19.86 mg/g at 25 °C and pH 6.5. The PPBC-La worked well at pH 2.4–9.6 and carried positive charge at pH < 5.8. The presence of SO42−, Cl−, and NO3− had a slight effect on fluoride uptake except HCO3− and PO43−. The real groundwater study testified that 9.8 mg/L of fluoride was removed effectively at 1.0 g/L of dosage and pH 5.2. The regeneration results revealed that the PPBC-La had a good reusability. According to FTIR, XPS analysis and the anion exchange experiment, anions (NO3− and OH−) exchange with fluoride ions was mainly responsible for fluoride adsorption.
KeywordsPomelo peel Biochar Lanthanum Defluoridation Adsorption
The authors acknowledge financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (No. 21407129), the Major Science and Technology Program for Water Pollution Control and Treatment (No. 2017ZX07202002), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No.2652017183).
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