Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 16, pp 15802–15822 | Cite as

Assessment of the effects of different tree species on urban microclimate

  • Mehmet Akif Irmak
  • Sevgi Yilmaz
  • Emral Mutlu
  • Hasan Yilmaz
Research Article


Trees in urban areas are important for their ecological functions in addition to their esthetic characteristics. Trees provide positive effects on urban microclimate by canopy, reflection, and transpiration activities; therefore, they help to decline formation of heat island. The objective of this study was to determine thermal effects of 15 different tree types: 4 coniferous and 11 deciduous species commonly found in the city of Erzurum located at the northeastern part of Turkey. The relationships between sky view factor and surface temperature regarding the differences in leaf density and tree species. In August 2016, the surface temperature of trees was measured using a thermal camera at 10:00 am and 4:00 pm hours. Sky view factor (SVF) was obtained by fisheye photos and physiologically characteristics of trees were determined. In all trees while the surface temperature was 20.1 °C at 10:00 am, it was 23.4 °C at 4:00 pm. Among the deciduous tree species, Betula verrucosa Ehrh. and Robinia pseudoacacia “Umbracuifera” had the lowest surface temperature; however, Abies concolor (Gord. & Glen.) had the lowest surface temperature among the coniferous tree species. The results indicated that the surface temperatures of different tree species varied considerably, and the SVF value had a significant effect on tree surface temperatures. However, it was obtained that the leaf types had no statistically significant effect on tree surface temperature.


Thermal surface temperature Tree species SVF Thermal camera 



This study was carried out by using the devices obtained with the 215O627 numbered project of TUBITAK (Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey) and presented at “GREEN CITIES 2017 International Symposium on greener cities for more efficient ecosystem services in a climate changing world—Abst. 42, Oral presentation, 12/15 September Bologna, Italy. The authors thank the Turkish State Meteorological Service (DMI) for sharing their data free of charges.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Atatürk University, Faculty of Architecture and Design, Department of Landscape ArchitectureErzurumTurkey

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