Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 13, pp 13093–13101 | Cite as

The influencing factors of CO2 emission intensity of Chinese agriculture from 1997 to 2014

  • Xingle Long
  • Yusen Luo
  • Chao Wu
  • Jijian Zhang
Research Article


In China, agriculture produces the greatest chemical oxygen demand (COD) emissions in wastewater and the most methane (CH4) emissions. It is imperative that agricultural pollution in China be reduced. This study investigated the influencing factors of the CO2 emission intensity of Chinese agriculture from 1997 to 2014. We analyzed the influencing factors of the CO2 emission intensity through the first-stage least-square regression. We also analyzed determinants of innovation through the second-stage least-square regression. We found that innovation negatively affected the CO2 emission intensity in the model of the nation. FDI positively affected innovation in China. It is important to enhance indigenous innovation for green agriculture through labor training and collaboration between agriculture and academia.


Agriculture Indigenous innovation FDI 



We appreciate the financial support provided by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 71603105, 71673117, 71471076), Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu, China (No. SBK2016042936), Science Foundation of Ministry of Education of China (No. 16YJC790067), and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2017M610051).


  1. Caves RE (1971) Industrial corporations: the industrial economics of foreign investment. Economica 141(38):1–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Caves RE (1974) Multinational firms, competition and productivity in host country market. Economica 41(162):176–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cheung KY, Lin P (2004) Spillover effects of FDI on innovation in China: evidence from the provincial data. China Econ Rev 15:25–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Costa-Campi MT, García-Quevedo J, Trujillo-Baute E (2015) Challenges for R&D and innovation in energy. Energy Policy 83:193–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dasgupta S, Mody A, Roy S, Wheeler DR (1995) Environmental regulation and development: a cross-country empirical analysis. Policy research department. Working paper no. 1448. World Bank, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  6. Department of Climate Change of National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) (2013) The People’s Republic of China second national communication on climate change. China Economy PressGoogle Scholar
  7. Ehrlich PR, Ehrlich AH (1970) Population, resources, environment: issues in human ecology. Freeman, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  8. Erdal L, Göçer I (2015) The effects of foreign direct investment on R&D and innovations: panel data analysis for developing Asian countries. Procedia—Social and Behavioral Sciences 195:749–758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Färe R, Grosskopf S, Pausurka CA (2007) Environmental production functions and environmental directional distance functions. Energy 32:1055–1066CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Franco S, Mandla VR, Rao KRM (2017) Urbanization, energy consumption and emissions in the Indian context A review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 71:898–907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Guo B, Wang T, Li D, Zhou XJ (2016) How energy technology innovation affects transition of coal resource-based economy in China. Energy Policy 92:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Haddad M, Harrison AE (1993) Are there positive spillover effect from foreign direct investment? Evidence from panel data for Morocco. Journal of Developing Economics 42:1–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Herrerias MJ, Cuadros A, Luo D (2016) Foreign versus indigenous innovation and energy intensity: further research across Chinese regions. Appl Energy 162:1374–1384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hymer, S.H.. The international operations of national firms: a study of direct foreign investment 1976, Cambridge, MA: MIT PressGoogle Scholar
  15. Inglesi-Lotz R (2016) Social rate of return to R&D on various energy technologies: where should we invest more? A study of G7 countries. Energy Policy 101:521–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Irandoust M (2016) The renewable energy-growth nexus with carbon emissions and technological innovation: evidence from the Nordic countries. Ecol Indic 69:118–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jaffe, A.B., Palmer, K. Environmental regulation and innovation: a panel data study. The review of economics and statistics, MIT Press, 1997, 79(4):610–619Google Scholar
  18. Kim TG, Maskus KE, Oh KY (2009) Effects of patents on productivity growth in Korean manufacturing: a panel data analysis. Pac Econ Rev 14(2):137–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lee KH, Min B (2015) Green R&D for eco-innovation and its impact on carbon emissions and firm performance. J Clean Prod 108:534–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Li B, Zhang JB, Li HP (2011) Research on spatial–temporal characteristics and affecting factors decomposition of agricultural carbon emission in China. China Population, Resources and Environment 21(8):80–86Google Scholar
  21. Liu XH, Zou H (2008) The impact of greenfield FDI and mergers and acquisitions on innovation in Chinese high-tech industries. J World Bus 43:352–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Long TB, Blok V, Coninx L (2016) Barriers to the adoption and diffusion of technological innovations for climate-smart agriculture in Europe: evidence from the Netherlands, France, Switzerland and Italy. J Clean Prod 112(1):9–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Luo YS, Long XL, Wu C, Zhang JJ (2017) Decoupling CO2 emissions from economic growth in agricultural sector across 30 Chinese provinces from 1997 to 2014. J Clean Prod 159:220–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lv LC, Xiong QQ (2010) FDI in China agriculture for 30 years: experience and literature reviews. Journal of International Trade 2:83–90Google Scholar
  25. Ministry of Agriculture of the People’s Republic of China. National agricultural sustainable development plan (2015–2030),, 2015Google Scholar
  26. Ministry of Environmental Protection of P.R.C (2015) Annual statistic report on environment in China. China Environmental Science PressGoogle Scholar
  27. National Bureau of Statistics of the People’s Republic of China (2011)
  28. Ouyang XL, Lin BQ (2017) Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions during urbanization: a comparative study between China and Japan. J Clean Prod 143:356–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Palmer K, Wallace EO, Portney PR (1995) Tightening environmental standards: the benefit-cost or the no-cost paradigm? J Econ Perspect 9(4):119–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Porter ME, Claas VDL (1995) Toward a new conception of the environment–competitiveness relationship. J Econ Perspect 9:97–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Romer PM (1990) Endogenous technological change. J Polit Econ 98:71–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sarkar SF, Poon JS, Lepage E, Bilecki L, Girard B Enabling a sustainable and prosperous future through science and innovation in the bioeconomy at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. New Biotechnol 2017.
  33. Senyolo, M.P., Long, T.B., Blok, V., Omta, O. How the characteristics of innovations impact their adoption: an exploration of climate-smart agricultural innovations in South Africa. J Clean Prod, 2017, 2017.06.019
  34. Shahbaz M, Chaudhary AR, Ozturk I (2017) Does urbanization cause increasing energy demand in Pakistan? Empirical evidence from STIRPAT model. Energy 122:83–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sinn HW (2012) The green paradox: a supply-side approach to global warming. MIT PressGoogle Scholar
  36. Sohag K, Begum RA, Abdullah SM, Jaafar M (2015) Dynamics of energy use, technological innovation, economic growth and trade openness in Malaysia. Energy 90:1497–1507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Song CU, Oh WK (2015) Determinants of innovation in energy intensive industry and implications for energy policy. Energy Policy 81:122–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Stiebale J, Reize F (2011) The impact of FDI through mergers and acquisitions on innovation in target firms. Int J Ind Organ 29:155–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tang CF, Tan EC (2013) Exploring the nexus of electricity consumption, economic growth, energy prices and technology innovation in Malaysia. Appl Energy 104:297–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Waggoner PE, Ausubel JH (2002) A framework for sustainability science: a renovated IPAT identity. PANS 99(12):7860–7865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wang ZH, Zhang B, Zeng HL (2016) The effect of environmental regulation on external trade: empirical evidences from Chinese economy. J Clean Prod 114:55–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wei J, Jia R, Marinova D, Zhao D (2012) Modeling pollution control and performance in China’s provinces. J Environ Manag 113:263–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wong SL, Chia WM, Chang Y (2013) Energy consumption and energy R&D in OECD: perspectives from oil prices and economic growth. Energy Policy 62:1581–1590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Xu B, Lin BQ (2017) Factors affecting CO2 emissions in China’s agriculture sector: evidence from geographically weighted regression model. Energy Policy 104:410–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. York R, Rose EA, Dietz T (2003) STIRPAT, IPAT and IMPACT: analytic tools for unpacking the driving forces of environment impacts. Ecol Econ 46:351–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Yuan BL, Ren SG, Chen XH (2015) The effects of urbanization, consumption ratio and consumption structure on residential indirect CO2 emissions in China: a regional comparative analysis. Appl Energy 140:94–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zarsky L Havens, halos and spaghetti: untangling the evidence about foreign direct investment and the environment. In: OECD conference on foreign direct investment and the environment, 1999, ParisGoogle Scholar
  48. Zhao XL, Yin HT, Zhao Y (2015) Impact of environmental regulations on the efficiency and CO2 emissions of power plants in China. Appl Energy 149:238–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018
corrected publication March/2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xingle Long
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yusen Luo
    • 3
  • Chao Wu
    • 3
  • Jijian Zhang
    • 3
  1. 1.School of ManagementJiangsu UniversityZhenjiangPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Center for Energy and Environmental Policy ResearchBeijing Institute of TechnologyBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.School of Finance and EconomicsJiangsu UniversityZhenjiangPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations