Simultaneous immobilization of cadmium and lead in contaminated soils by hybrid bio-nanocomposites of fungal hyphae and nano-hydroxyapatites
Self-aggregation of bulk nano-hydroxyapatites (n-HAPs) undermines their immobilization efficiencies of heavy metals in the contaminated soils. Here, the low-cost, easily obtained, and environment-friendly filamentous fungi have been introduced for the bio-matrices of the hybrid bio-nanocomposites to potentially solve such problem of n-HAPs. According to SEM, TEM, XRD, and FT-IR analyses, n-HAPs were successfully coated onto the fungal hyphae and their self-aggregation was improved. The immobilization efficiencies of diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd and Pb in the contaminated soils by the bio-nanocomposites were individually one to four times of that by n-HAPs or the fungal hyphae. Moreover, the Aspergillus niger-based bio-nanocomposite (ANHP) was superior to the Penicillium Chrysogenum F1-based bio-nanocomposite (PCHP) in immobilization of Cd and Pb in the contaminated soils. In addition, the results of XRD showed that one of the potential mechanisms of metal immobilization by the hybrid bio-nanocomposites was dissolution of n-HAPs followed by precipitation of new metal phosphate minerals. Our results suggest that the hybrid bio-nanocomposite (ANHP) can be recognized as a promising soil amendment candidate for effective remediation on the soils simultaneously contaminated by Cd and Pb.
KeywordsSoil remediation Hybrid bio-nanocomposites Fungal hyphae Nano-hydroxyapatite Heavy metals
The authors gratefully acknowledge the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51774338), Key Scientific Research Project of Hunan Province, China (2016SK2004), and Programs for Science and Technology Development of Strategic Emerging Industries of Hunan Province, China (2016GK4044) for financial support.
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