Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 12, pp 11924–11939 | Cite as

How can water quality be improved when the urban waste water directive has been fulfilled? A case study of the Lot river (France)

  • Josette Garnier
  • Antsiva Ramarson
  • Vincent Thieu
  • Julien Némery
  • Sylvain Théry
  • Gilles Billen
  • Alexandra Coynel
Research Article


The Lot river, a major tributary of the downstream Garonne river, the largest river on the Northern side of the Pyrenees Mountains, was intensively studied in the 1970s. A pioneering program called “Lot Rivière Claire” provided a diagnosis of water quality at the scale of the whole watershed and proposed an ambitious program to manage nutrient pollution and eutrophication largely caused by urban wastewater releases. Later on, the implementation of European directives from 1991 to 2000 resulted in the nearly complete treatment of point sources of pollution in spite of a doubling of the basin’s population. At the outlet of the Lot river, ammonium and phosphate contamination which respectively peaked to 1 mg N-NH4 L−1 and 0.3 mg P-PO4 L−1 in the 1980s returned to much lower levels in recent years (0.06 mg N-NH4 L−1 and 0.02 mg P-PO4 L−1), a reduction by a factor 15. However, during this time, nitrate contamination has regularly increased since the 1980s, from 0.5 to 1.2 mg N-NO3 L−1 in average, owing to the intensification of agriculture and livestock farming. Application of the Riverstrahler model allowed us to simulate the water quality of the Lot drainage network for the 2002–2014 period. We showed that, with respect to algal requirements, phosphorus and silica are well balanced, but nitrogen remains largely in excess over phosphorus and silica. This imbalance can be problematic for the ecological status of the water bodies. Using the model, for simulating various scenarios of watershed management, we showed that improvement of urban wastewater treatment would not result in any significant change in the river’s water quality. Even though arable land occupies a rather limited fraction of the watershed area, only the adoption of better farming practices or more radical changes in the agro-food system could reverse the trend of increasing nitrate contamination.


Nutrient fluxes River water quality Biogeochemical modeling Lot river 



The TWINRIVERS Programme AAP Blanc Inter II SIMI 5-6 2011 project was funded by the National Agency for Research (ANR-11-IS56-0003) and was coordinated by Alexandra Coynel. Georges Vachaud is greatly acknowledged for his kind and relevant advice during the project. We would like to sincerely thank our scientific colleagues for the pioneering work carried out in the 1970s on rivers providing enthusiasm to the next generations of researchers.


  1. Aissa Grouz A, Garnier J, Billen G, Mercier B, Martinez A (2015) The response of river nitrification to changes in wastewater treatment (the case of the lower Seine River downstream from Paris). Ann Limnol - Int J Lim 51(4):351–364. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aissa Grouz N, Garnier J, Billen G (2016) Long trend reduction of phosphorus wastewater loading in the seine: determination of phosphorus speciation and sorption for modeling algal growth. Environ Sci Pollut Res.
  3. Anglade A (2015) Agriculture biologique, qualité de l’eau et gouvernance. Ph-D Univ. Paris 6 (UPMC), ED “Géosciences et Ressources Naturelles”. 295 pp.Google Scholar
  4. Arini A, Baudrimont M, Feurtet-Mazel A, Coynel A, Blanc G, Coste M, Delmas F (2011) Comparison of periphytic biofilm and filter-feeding bivalve metal bioaccumulation (Cd and Zn) to monitor hydrosystem restoration after industrial remediation: a year of biomonitoring. J Environ Monit 13(12):3386–3398. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Audry S, Schafer J, Blanc G, Jouanneau JM (2004a) 50-year sedimentary record of heavy metal pollution (Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb) in the Lot river reservoirs (France). Environ Pollut 132(3):413–426. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Audry S, Schafer J, Blanc G, Jouanneau JM (2004b) 50-year sedimentary record of heavy metal pollution (Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb) in the Lot river reservoirs (France). Environ Pollut 132(3):413–426. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Audry S, Grosbois C, Bril H, Schafer J, Kierczak J, Blanc G (2010) Post-depositional redistribution of trace metals in reservoir sediments of a mining/smelting-impacted watershed (the Lot river, SW France). Appl Geochem 25:78–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bernard-Jannin L, Sun X, Teissier S, Sauvage S, Sánchez-Pérez JM (2017) Spatio-temporal analysis of factors controlling nitrate dynamics and potential denitrification hot spots and hot moments in groundwater of an alluvial floodplain. Ecol Eng 103:372–384 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bertrand F, Dunand A, Fosse J, Fradin N, Liger D, Keck G (2004) Les intoxinations par les cyanobactéries. Le Point Vétérinaire 250:46–50Google Scholar
  10. Billen G, Garnier J, Hanset P (1994) Modelling phytoplankton development in whole drainage networks: the RIVERSTRAHLER model applied to the Seine river system. Hydrobiologia 289:119–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Billen G, Garnier J (2000) Nitrogen transfers through the Seine drainage network: a budget based on the application of the Riverstrahler model. Hydrobiologia 410:139–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Billen G, Garnier J, Rousseau V (2005) Nutrient fluxes and water quality in the drainage network of the Scheldt basin over the last 50 years. Hydrobiologia 540(1-3):47–67. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Billen G, Garnier J (2007) River basin nutrient delivery to the coastal sea: assessing its potential to sustain new production of non siliceous algae. Mar Chem 106:148–160. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Billen G, Garnier J, Némery J, Sebilo M, Sferratore A, Barles S, Benoit P, Benoit M (2007) Nutrient transfers through the Seine river continuum: mechanisms and long term trends. Sci Total Environ 375(1-3):80–97. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Billen G, Lasseletta L, Garnier J (2014) A biogeochemical view of the global agro-food system: nitrogen flows associated with protein production, consumption and trade. Global Food Security 3(3-4):209–219. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Billen G, Le Noë J, Lassaletta L, Thieu V, Anglade J, Petit L, Garnier J (2016) Et si la France passait au régime « Bio, Local et Demitarien » ? Un scénario radical d’autonomie protéique et azotée de l’agriculture et de l’élevage, et de sobriété alimentaire. Le DEMETER 2017, 23ème Edition, Economie et stratégie agricoles, p 389-406. Club DEMETER, Paris ISSN/1166-2115Google Scholar
  17. Blanc G, Lapaquellerie Y, Maillet N, Anschutz P (1999) A cadmium budget for the Lot-Garonne fluvial system (France). Hydrobiologia 410:331–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bossard M, Feranec J, Otahel J (2000) Corine land cover technical guide—addendum 2000, technical report no 40. EEA, Copenhagen Google Scholar
  19. Bouraoui F, Grizzetti B (2011) Long term change of nutrient concentrations of rivers discharging in European seas. Sci Total Environ 409(2011):4899–4916. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Camargo JA, Alonso A, Salamanca A (2005) Nitrate toxicity to aquatic animals: a review with new data for freshwater invertebrates. Chemosphere 58(9):1255–1267. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Capblancq J, Dauta A (1978) Phytoplancton et production primaire de la rivière Lot. Annls Limnol 14(1–2):85–112. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Capblancq J, Tourenq J-N (1978) Hydrochimie de la rivière Lot. Annls Limnol. 14(1–2):25–37. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Capblancq J, Dauta A, Caussade B, Décamps H (1982) Variations journalières de la production phytoplanctonique en rivière : modélisation d’un bief du Lot. Annls Limnol. 18(2):101–132. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Conley DJ, Kilham SS, Theriot EC (1989) Differences in silica content between marine and freshwater diatoms. Limnol Oceanogr 34(1):205–213. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Coynel A, Schafer J, Dabrin A, Girardot N, Blanc G (2007) Groundwater contributions to metal transport in a small river affected by mining and smelting waste. Water Res 41(15):3420–3428. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Coynel A, Blanc G, Marache A, Schafer J, Dabrin A, Maneux E, Bossy C, Masson M, Lavaux G (2009) Assessment of metal contamination in a small mining-affected watershed - high resolution monitoring coupled with spatial analysis by GIS. J Environ Monit 11(5):962–976. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Coynel A, Garnier J, Némery J, Blanchet Ph , Delmas F (2016) Sustainable and integrated management on watersheds facing industrial pollution and urbanization. A comparative study between Lot river (France) and Danshui River (Taiwan). Projet ANR-11-IS56-0003 TWINRIVERS Programme AAP Blanc Inter II SIMI 5-6 2011. 24ppGoogle Scholar
  28. Dang TH, Coynel A, Orange D, Blanc G, Etcheber H, Le LA (2010) Long-term monitoring (1960–2008) of the river-sediment transport in the Red River watershed (Vietnam): temporal variability and dam-reservoir impact. Sci Total Environ 408(20):4654–4664. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Davis AS, Hill JD, Chase CA, Johanns AM, Liebman M (2012) Increasing cropping system diversity balances productivity, profitability and environmental health. PLoS One 7, e47149. doi: 10.1371/ journal.pone.0047149, DOI:
  30. Décamps H (1978) Qualité des eaux et développement de la Vallée du Lot. Annls Limnol 14(1–2):163–179. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Diaz RJ, Rosenberg R (2008) Spreading dead zones and consequences for marine ecosystems. Science 321(5891):926–929, ISSN:0036-8075. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Eberlein K, Kattner G (1987) Automatic method for the determination of ortho-phosphate and total dissolved phosphorus in the marine environment. Fresenius' Z Anal Chem 326(4):354–357. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Eckhardt K (2008) A comparison of baseflow indices, which were calculated with seven different baseflow separation methods. J Hydrol 352(1-2):168–173. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. EEA, European Environment Agency (2007) CLC2006 technical guidelines. Technical Report No. 17/2007. European Environment Agency, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  35. Garnier J, Billen G, Coste M (1995) Seasonnal succession of diatoms and Chlorophyceae in the drainage network of the river Seine: observations and modelling. Limnol Oceanogr 40:750–765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Garnier J, Billen G, Sanchez N, Leporcq B (2000) Ecological functioning of a large reservoir in the upstream basin of the river Seine (Marne reservoir, France). Regulated River 16:51–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Garnier J, Billen G, Hannon E, Fonbonne S, Videnina Y, Soulie M (2002) Modeling transfer and retention of nutrients in the drainage network of the Danube River. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 54(3):285–308. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Garnier J, Beusen A, Thieu V, Billen G, Bouwman L (2010) N:P:Si nutrient export ratios and ecological consequences in coastal seas evaluated by the ICEP approach. Special issue “Past and Future Trends in Nutrient Export from Global Watersheds and Impacts on Water Quality and Eutrophication”, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 24, GB0A05, doi:
  39. Garnier J, Billen G, Vilain G, Benoit M, Passy P, Tallec G, Tournebize J, Anglade J, Billy C, Mercier B, Ansart P, Sebilo M, Kao C (2014) Curative vs. preventive management of nitrogen transfers in rural areas: lessons from the case of the Orgeval watershed (Seine River basin, France). J Environ Manag 144:125–134. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Garnier J, Anglade J, Benoit M, Billen G, Puech T, Ramarson A, Passy P, Silvestre M, Lassaletta L, Trommenschlager J-M, Schott C, Tallec G (2016) Reconnecting crop and cattle farming to reduce nitrogen losses in river water of an intensive agricultural catchment (Seine basin, France). Environ Sci Policy 63:76–90. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gil-Diaz T, Schäfer J, Coynel A, Bossy C, Dutruch L, Blanc G (2018) Antimony in the Lot-Garonne River system: a thirteen-year record of solid/liquid partitioning and fluxes.
  42. Gobler CJ, Davis TW, Coyne KJ, Boyer GL (2007) Interactive influences of nutrient loading, zooplankton grazing, and microcystin synthetase gene expression on cyanobacterial bloom dynamics in a eutrophic New York lake. Harmful Algae 6(1):119–133. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gorse L, Etcheber H , Coynel A, Anschutz P, Grosbois C, Maillet G, Savoye N, Abril G, Moatar M, Sottolichio A, Maneux E (2010) Analyse multi-proxies des eaux du bassin de la Loire intérieure et estuarienne. 23ème Réunion des Sciences de la Terre, 25–29 oct. 2010, Bordeaux, FranceGoogle Scholar
  44. Grizzetti B, Bouraoui F, Billen G, van Grinsven H, Cardoso AC, Thieu V, Garnier J, Curtis C, Howarth R, Jones P (2011) Chapter 17: reactive nitrogen as a threat to European water quality, 379-404. Part IV—managing nitrogen in relation to key societal treats. In: Assessment EN (ed) Sutton et al._Cambridge University Press, London, 612ppGoogle Scholar
  45. Hill AR (1996) Nitrate removal in stream riparian zones. J Environ Qual 25:743–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. James C, Fisher J, Russel V, Collings S, Moss B (2005) Nitrate availability and hydrophyte species richness in shallow lakes. Freshw Biol 50(6):1049–1063. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Jarvis A, Reuter HI, Nelson A, Guevara E (2008) Hole-filled SRTM for the globe Version 4, available from the CGIAR-CSI SRTM 90m Database (
  48. Jones MN (1984) Nitrate reduction by shaking with cadmium, alternative to cadmium columns. Water Res 18:643–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Justes E, Beaudoin N, Bertuzzi P, Charles R, Constantin J, Durr C, Hermon C, Joannon A, Le Bas C, Mary B, Mignolet C, Montfort F, Ruiz L, Sarthou J-P, Souchere V, Tournebize J, Savini I, Rechauchère O (2012) Réduire les fuites de nitrate au moyennde cultures intermédiaires: conséquences sur les bilans d'eau et d'azote, autres services écosystémiques. Expertise collective INRA, France, p 60Google Scholar
  50. Justić D, Rabalais NN, Turner RE (1995) Stoichiometric nutrient balance and origin of coastal eutrophication. Mar Pollut Bull 30(1):41–46. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kirkby MJ, Jones RJA, Irvine, B, Gobin A, Govers G, Cerdan O, Van Rompaey AJJ, Le Bissonnais Y, Daroussin J, King D, Montanarella L, Grimm M, Vieillefont V, Puigdefabregas J, Boer M, Kosmas C, Yassoglou N, Tsara M, Mantel S, Van Lynden GJ, Huting J (2004) Pan-European soil erosion risk assessment: the PESERA map Version 1 October 2003. Explanation of Special Publication Ispra 2004 No.73 (S.P.I.04.73), European Soil Bureau Research Report No.16, EUR 21176, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg 18 pp.Google Scholar
  52. Lapaquellerie Y, Jouanneau JM, Maillet N, Latouche C (1995) Cadmium pollution in sediments of the lot river (France). Estimate of the mass of cadmium. Environ Technol 16:1145–1154Google Scholar
  53. Lanoux A (2013) Caractérisation et rôle respectif des apports organiques amont et locaux sur l'oxygénation des eaux de la Garonne estuarienne. PhD thesis of University Bordeaux 1 -. available on
  54. Le TPQ, Billen G, Garnier J (2014) Long-term evolution of the biogeochemical functioning of the Red River (Vietnam): past and present situations. REC 15(2):329–339. Google Scholar
  55. Leleu I, Tonnelier I, Puechberty R, Gouin P, Viquendi I, Cobos L, Foray A, Baillon M, Ndima P-O (2014) La refonte du système d’information national pour la gestion et la mise à dispo- sition des données hydrométriques. La Houille Blanche (1):25–32.
  56. Lorenzen CJ (1967) Determination of chlorophyll and phaeopigments: spectrophotometric equations. Limnol Oceanogr 12(2):343–346. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Maneux E, Probst JL, Veyssy E, Etcheber H (2001) Assessment of dam trapping efficiency from water residence time: application to fluvial sediment transport in the Adour, Dordogne and Garonne river basins (France). Water Resour Res 37:801–811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Meybeck M (1986) Composition chimique des ruisseaux non polluées de France. Sci Géol Bull 39:3–77Google Scholar
  59. Minaudo C, Meybeck M, Moatar F, Gassana N, Curie F (2015) Eutrophication mitigation in rivers: 30 years of trends in spatial and seasonal patterns of biogeochemistry of the Loire River (1980-2012). Biogeosciences 12(8):2549–2563. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Morin S, Duong TT, Dabrin A, Coynel A, Herlory O, Baudrimont M, Delmas F, Durrieu G, Schafer J, Winterton P, Blanc G, Coste M (2008) Long term survey of heavy metal pollution, biofilm contamination and diatom community structure in the Riou-Mort watershed, south West France. Environ Pollut 151(3):532–542. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Passy P, Gypens N, Billen G, Garnier J, Lancelot C, Thieu V, Rousseau V, Callens J (2013) A model reconstruction of riverine nutrient fluxes and eutrophication in the Belgian coastal zone since 1984. J Mar System 128:106–122. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Pinay G, Roques L, Fabre A (1993) Spatial and temporal patterns of denitrification in a riparian Forest. J Appl Ecol 30(4):581–591. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Pinay G, Black VJ, Planty-Tabacchi AM, Gumiero B, Decamps H (2000) Geomorphic control of denitrification in large river floodplain soils. Biogeochemistry 50(2):163–182. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pineda-Mendoza RM, Zuniga G, Martınez-Jeronimo F (2016) Microcystin production in Microcystis aeruginosa: effect of type of strain, environmental factors, nutrient concentrations, and N:P ratio on mcyA gene expression. Aquat Ecol 50(1):103–119. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Quinton JN, Govers G, Van Oost K, Bardgett RD (2010) The impact of agricultural soil erosion on biogeochemical cycling. Nat Geosci 3(5):311–314. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Redfield AC, Ketchum BH, Richards FA (1963) The influence of organisms on the composition of sea-water. In: Hill MN (ed) The sea. John Wiley, New York, pp 12–37Google Scholar
  67. Rodier J (1984) L’analyse de l’eau. 7e édition. DUNODGoogle Scholar
  68. Romero E, Garnier J, Lassaletta L, Billen G, Le Gendre R, Riou P, Cugier P (2013) Large-scale patterns of river inputs in SW Europe: seasonal and interannual variations and potential eutrophication effects at the coastal zone. Biogeochemistry 113(1-3):481–505. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Romero E, Le Gendre R, Garnier J, Billen G, Fisson C, Silvestre M, Ph R (2016) Long-term water quality in the lower Seine: lessons learned over 4 decades of monitoring. Environ Sci Policy 58:141–154. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Ruelland D, Billen G, Brunstein D, Garnier J (2007) SENEQUE 3: a GIS interface to the RIVERSTRAHLER model of the biogeochemical functioning of river systems. Sci Total Environ 375(1-3):257–273. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Sánchez-Pérez JM, Vervier P, Garabétian F, Sauvage S, Loubet M, Rols JL, Bariac T, Weng P (2003) Nitrogen dynamics in the shallow groundwater of ariparian wetland zone of the Garonne SW France: nitrate inputs, bacterialdensities, organic matter supply and denitrification measurements. HydrolEarth Syst Sci 7(1):97–107, CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sferratore A, Billen G, Garnier J, Humborg C, Rahm L (2008) Modelling nutrient fluxes from sub-arctic basins: comparison of pristine vs. dammed rivers. J Mar Syst 73(3-4):236–249. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Shinn C, Dauba F, Grenouillet G, Guenard G, Lek S (2009) Temporal variation of heavy metal contamination in fish of the river lot in southern France. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 72(7):1957–1965. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Slavyck G, McIsaac JJ (1972) Comparison of two automated ammonium methods in a region of coastal upwelling. Deep-Sea Res 19:1–4Google Scholar
  75. Strahler A (1957) Quantitative analysis of watershed geomorphology. Trans Am Geophys Union 38(6):913–920. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Thieu V, Billen G, Garnier J (2009) Nutrient transfer in three contrasting NW European watersheds: the Seine, Somme, and Scheldt rivers. A comparative application of the Seneque/Riverstrahler model. Water Res 43(6):1740–1754. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Thébaut J-M, Quotbi A (1999) A model of phytoplankton development in the Lot river (France). Simulation and scenarios Wat Res 33:1065–1079Google Scholar
  78. Thouvenot M, Billen G, Garnier J (2007) Modelling nutrient exchange at the sediment – water interface of river systems. J Hydrol 341(1-2):55–78. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Thouvenot-Korppoo M, Billen G, Garnier J (2009) Modelling benthic denitrification processes over a whole drainage network. J Hydrol 379(3-4):239–250. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Toth G, Jones A, Montanarella L. (eds.) 2013. LUCAS topsoil survey. Methodology, data and results. JRC Technical Reports. Luxembourg. Publications Office of the European Union, EUR 26102, Scientific and Technical Research series. ISSN 1831–9424 (online); ISBN 978-92-79-32542-7; doi:
  81. Tourenq J-N, Capblancq J, Casanova H (1978) Bassin versant et hydrologie de la rivière Lot. Annls Limnol 14(1–2):9–23. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Ulén B, Bechmann M, Fölster J, Jarvie HP, Tunney H (2007) Agriculture as a phosphorus source for eutrophication in the north-west European countries, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom and Ireland: a review. British Society of Soil Science, Soil Use Manag 23(Suppl. 1):5–15. Google Scholar
  83. Vidon P, Craig A, Douglas B, Duval TP, Gurwick N, Inamdar S, Lowrance R, Okay J, Scott D, Sebestyen S (2010) Hot spots and hot moments in riparian zones: potential for improved water quality management. J Am Water Resour Assoc (JAWRA) 46(2):278–298. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Volk M, Liersch S, Schmidt G (2009) Towards the implementation of the European water framework directive? Lessons learned from water quality simulations in an agricultural watershed. Land Use Policy 26:580e588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Vörösmarty CJ, Meybeck M, Fekete B, Sharma K, Green P, Syvitski JPM (2003) Anthropogenic sediment retention: major global impact from registered river impoundments. Glob Planet Chang 39(1-2):169–190. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wasson JG, Villeneuve B, Iital A, Murray- Bligh J, Dobiasova M, Bacikova S et al (2010) Large-scale relationships between basin and riparian land cover and the ecological status of European rivers. Freshw Biol 55:1465–1482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. WFD (Water Framework Directive) (2000). OJ L 327/1, 22.12, pp. 1–72Google Scholar
  88. UWWTD (Urban wastewater treatment Directive) (1991) 91/271/CEE du Conseil, du 21mai 1991, relative au traitement des eaux urbaines résiduaires. JO L 135 du 30.5.1991, pp. 40–52Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Josette Garnier
    • 1
  • Antsiva Ramarson
    • 1
  • Vincent Thieu
    • 1
  • Julien Némery
    • 2
  • Sylvain Théry
    • 3
  • Gilles Billen
    • 1
  • Alexandra Coynel
    • 4
  1. 1.UMR 7619 Metis (Sorbonne Université—CNRS—EPHE) BP 123ParisFrance
  2. 2.Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IRD, Grenoble INP (Institute of Engineering Univ. Grenoble Alpes), IGEGrenobleFrance
  3. 3.CNRS FR-3020 FIREParisFrance
  4. 4.Université de BordeauxPessacFrance

Personalised recommendations