Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 16, pp 15336–15348 | Cite as

Effect of simulated acid rain on fluorine mobility and the bacterial community of phosphogypsum

  • Mei Wang
  • Ya Tang
  • Christopher W. N. Anderson
  • Paramsothy Jeyakumar
  • Jinyan Yang
Research Article

Abstract

Contamination of soil and water with fluorine (F) leached from phosphogypsum (PG) stacks is a global environmental issue. Millions of tons of PG is produced each year as a by-product of fertilizer manufacture, and in China, weathering is exacerbated by acid rain. In this work, column leaching experiments using simulated acid rain were run to evaluate the mobility of F and the impact of weathering on native bacterial community composition in PG. After a simulated summer rainfall, 2.42–3.05 wt% of the total F content of PG was leached and the F concentration in leachate was above the quality standard for surface water and groundwater in China. Acid rain had no significant effect on the movement of F in PG. A higher concentration of F was observed at the bottom than the top section of PG columns suggesting mobility and reprecipitation of F. Throughout the simulation, the PG was environmentally safe according the TCLP testing. The dominant bacteria in PG were from the Enterococcus and Bacillus genus. Bacterial community composition in PG leached by simulated acid rain (pH 3.03) was more abundant than at pH 6.88. Information on F mobility and bacterial community in PG under conditions of simulated rain is relevant to management of environmental risk in stockpiled PG waste.

Keywords

Acid rain Bacterial community Column leaching Fluorine Mobility Phosphogypsum 

Notes

Funding information

This work was supported by the Huimin Technology Research and Development Project of Chengdu Science and Technology Bureau of China (2015-HM01-00180-SF), the Program of Introducing Talents of Discipline to Universities or “111 Project” of China (B08037), and the International Cooperation Projects of Sichuan Province of China (2015HH0023).

References

  1. Arocena JM, Rutherford PM, Dudas MJ (1995) Heterogeneous distribution of trace elements and fluorine in phosphogypsum by-product. Sci Total Environ 162(2–3):149–160.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-9697(95)04446-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Banks MK, Schwab AP, Henderson C (2006) Leaching and reduction of chromium in soil as affected by soil organic content and plants. Chemosphere 62(2):255–264.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.05.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beighton D, Mcdougall WA (1977) The effects of fluoride on the percentage bacterial composition of dental plaque, on caries incidence, and on the in vitro growth of Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces viscosus, and Actinobacillus sp. J Dent Res 56(10):1185–1191.  https://doi.org/10.1177/00220345770560101201 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Benedict RG, Carlson DA (1971) Aerobic heterotrophic bacteria in activated sludge. Water Res 5(11):1023–1030.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0043-1354(71)90036-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bernardet JF, Nakagawa Y, Holmes B (2002) Proposed minimal standards for describing new taxa of the family Flavobacteriaceae and emended description of the family. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52(Pt 3):1049–1070Google Scholar
  6. Biswas G, Thakurta SG, Chakrabarty J et al (2017) Evaluation of fluoride bioremediation and production of biomolecules by living cyanobacteria under fluoride stress condition. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 148:26–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bousselmi M, Mustapha MB, Khamessi M et al (2016) Isolation and characterisation of a novel radioresistant bacteria from phosphogypsum in Tunisia. Imper J Interd Res 2(12):186–191Google Scholar
  8. Camargo JA (2003) Fluoride toxicity to aquatic organisms: a review. Chemosphere 50(3):251–264.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(02)00498-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chaïrat C, Oelkers EH, Schott J, Lartigue JE (2007) Fluorapatite surface composition in aqueous solution deduced from potentiometric, electrokinetic, and solubility measurements, and spectroscopic observations. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 71(24):5888–5900.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2007.09.026 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chouhan S, Tuteja U, Flora SJ (2012) Isolation, identification and characterization of fluoride resistant bacteria: possible role in bioremediation. Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol 48(1):43–50Google Scholar
  11. Contreras M, Pérez-López R, Gázquez MJ et al (2015) Fractionation and fluxes of metals and radionuclides during the recycling process of phosphogypsum wastes applied to mineral CO2 sequestration. Waste Manage 14(6):412–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. DB33/T 892 (2013) Guideline for risk assessment of contaminated sites. Zhejiang procincial administration of quality and technology supervision, HangzhouGoogle Scholar
  13. Dehbandi R, Moore F, Keshavarzi B (2017) Provenance and geochemical behavior of fluorine in the soils of an endemic fluorosis belt, central Iran. J Afr Earth Sci 129:56–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Deng H, Ma L, Bandaranayaka N et al (2014) Identification of fluorinases from Streptomyces sp MA37, Norcardia brasiliensis, and Actinoplanes sp N902-109 by genome mining. Chembiochem 15(3):364–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Edgar RC (2010) Search and clustering orders of magnitude faster than BLAST. Bioinformatics 26:460–2461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fordyce FM (2011) Fluorine: human health risks. In: NriaguJO (ed) Encyclopedia of environmental health, Volume 2. Burlington, Elsevier, pp 776–785, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-52272-6.00697-8
  17. GB 3838 (2002) Environmental quality standard for surface water (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  18. GB 5085.3 (2007) Identification standards for hazardous wastes—identification for extraction toxicity (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  19. GB/T 14848-93 (1993) Quality standard for ground water. Ministry of environmental protection of the People’s Republic of China and General of administration of quality supervision, inspection and quarantine of the People’s Republic of China, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  20. GB/T 15555. 11-1995 (1995) Soil waste—determination of fluoride-ion selective electrode method (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  21. Górecki H, Chojnacka K, DobrzańSki Z et al (2006) The effect of phosphogypsum as the mineral feed additive on fluorine content in eggs and tissues of laying hens. Anim Feed Sci Technol 128(1–2):84–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Grifoll M, Selifonov SA, Gatlin CV et al (1995) Actions of a versatile fluorene-degrading bacterial isolate on polycyclic aromatic compounds. Appl Environ Microbiol 61(10):3711–3723Google Scholar
  23. Güde H (1980) Occurrence of cytophagas in sewage plants. Appl Environ Microbiol 39(4):756–763Google Scholar
  24. Hao L, Lü F, Wu Q, Shao L, He P (2014) High concentrations of methyl fluoride affect the bacterial community in a thermophilic methanogenic sludge. PLoS One 9(3):e92604.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0092604 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Harter RD (1983) Effect of soil pH on adsorption of lead, copper, zinc, and nickel. Soil Sci Soc Am J 47(1):47–51.  https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1983.03615995004700010009x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hentati O, Abrantes N, Caetano AL et al (2015) Phosphogypsum as a soil fertilizer: ecotoxicity of amended soil and elutriates to bacteria, invertebrates, algae and plants. J Hazar Mater 294:80–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Herlemann DP, Labrenz M, Jürgens K et al (2011) Transitions in bacterial communities along the 2000 km salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea. Isme J 5(10):1571–1579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. HJ 25.3 (2014) Technical guidelines for risk assessment of contaminated sites. Ministry of environmental protection of the People’s of China, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  29. Hodson ME, Langan SJ (1999) A long-term soil leaching column experiment investigating the effect of variable sulphate loads on soil solution and soil drainage chemistry. Environ Pollut 104(1):11–19.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(98)00164-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Holben WE, Jansson JK, Chelm BK, Tiedje JM (1988) DNA probe method for the detection of specific microorganisms in the soil bacterial community. Appl Environ Microbiol 54(3):703–711Google Scholar
  31. Ji C (2014) Fluoride ion trapping in bacteria under acidic environment and quaternary structure of CLCF-type membrane transporte. Dissertation, Brandeis UniversityGoogle Scholar
  32. Karathanasis AD, Johnson DM (2006) Subsurface transport of Cd, Cr, and Mo mediated by biosolid colloids. Sci Total Environ 354(2–3):157–169.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2005.01.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Li X, Chen Z, Chen Z et al (2013) A human health risk assessment of rare earth elements in soil and vegetables from a mining area in Fujian Province, Southeast China. Chemosphere 93(6):1240–1246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Li Q, Ding D, Wang Q et al (2014) Fluoride tolerance of co-culture of bioleaching microorganisms and community dynamics under fluoride stress. Chinese Journal of Nonferrous Metals 24(6):1678–1685 (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  35. Li J, Liu Z, Zhao W et al (2015) Alkaline slag is more effective than phosphogypsum in the amelioration of subsoil acidity in an Ultisol profile. Soil Till Res 149:21–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Liu K (2011) The characteristics of precipitation variation in Shifang in the past fifty years. Gansu Sci Technol 27(22):74–76 (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  37. Ma L, Wang B, Yang J (2008) Spatial-temporal distribution of acid rain in Sichuan Province. Environ Sci Manag 33(4):26–29 (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  38. Macías F, Cánovas CR, Cruz-Hernández P, Carrero S, Asta MP, Nieto JM, Pérez-López R (2017) An anomalous metal-rich phosphogypsum: characterization and classification according to international regulations. J Hazard Mater 331:99–108.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2017.02.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Marguı́ E, Salvadó V, Queralt I, Hidalgo M (2004) Comparison of three-stage sequential extraction and toxicity characteristic leaching tests to evaluate metal mobility in mining wastes. Anal Chim Acta 524(1–2):151–159.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2004.05.043 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Martins M, Assunção A, Neto A et al (2016) Performance and bacterial community shifts during phosphogypsum biotransformation. Water Air Soil Pollut 227(12):437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mason B, Moore CB (1982) Principles of geochemistry. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. Mavi MS, Marschner P, Chittleborough DJ et al (2012) Salinity and sodicity affect soil respiration and dissolved organic matter dynamics differentially in soils varying in texture. Soil Biol Biochem 45:8–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Naseem S, Rafique T, Bashir E et al (2010) Lithological influences on occurrence of high-fluoride groundwater in Nagar Parkar area, Thar Desert, Pakistan. Chemosphere 78(11):1313–1321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Nelson DW, Sommers LE, Sparks DL et al (1996) Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. Methods of Soil Analysis Part 3. Chemical Methods, Soil Science Society of America and American Society of AgronomyBook Series no.5 pp 961–1010Google Scholar
  45. Niemi RM, Heiskanen I, Wallenius K et al (2001) Extraction and purification of DNA in rhizosphere soil samples for PCR-DGGE analysis of bacterial consortia. J Microbiol Methods 45(3):155–165.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-7012(01)00253-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ochoaherrera V, Banihani Q, León G et al (2009) Toxicity of fluoride to microorganisms in biological wastewater treatment systems. Sci Total Environ 43(13):3177–3186Google Scholar
  47. Ozsvath DL (2009) Fluoride and environmental health: a review. Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol 8(1):59–79.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11157-008-9136-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Pagano G, Guida M, Tommasi F et al (2015) Health effects and toxicity mechanisms of rare earth elements-knowledge gaps and research prospects. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 115:40–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Pal KC, Mondal NK, Chatterjee S, Ghosh TS, Datta JK (2014) Characterization of fluoride-tolerant halophilic Bacillus flexus NM25 (HQ875778) isolated from fluoride-affected soil in Birbhum District, West Bengal, India. Environ Monit Assess 186(2):699–709.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-013-3408-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Poon CS, Lio KW (1997) The limitation of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure for evaluating cement-based stabilised/solidified waste forms. Waste Manag 17(1):15–23.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0956-053X(97)00030-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ropelewska E, Dziejowski J, Zapotoczny P (2016) Changes in the microbial activity and thermal properties of soil treated with sodium fluoride. Appl Soil Ecol 98:159–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rutherford PM, Dudas MJ, Arocena JM (1995) Trace elements and fluoride in phosphogypsum leachates. Environ Technol Let 16(4):343–354.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09593331608616276 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Rutherford PM, Dudas MJ, Arocena JM (1996) Heterogeneous distribution of radionuclides, barium and strontium in phosphogypsum by-product. Sci Total Environ 180(3):201–209.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-9697(95)04939-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Singh M, Garg M, Verma CL et al (1996) An improved process for the purification of phosphogypsum. Cons Build Mater 10(8):597–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Sugiyama A, Masuda S, Nagaosa K, Tsujimura M, Kato K (2016) Tracking the direct impact of rainfall on groundwater at Mt. Fuji by multiple analyses including microbial DNA. Biogeosci Discuss.  https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-2016-78
  56. Sun Y, Xie Z, Li J et al (2006) Assessment of toxicity of heavy metal contaminated soils by the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure. Environ Sci 28(1–2):73–78Google Scholar
  57. Supharungsun S, Wainwright M (1982) Determination, distribution, and adsorption of fluoride in atmospheric-polluted soils. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 28(5):632–636.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01605597 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Tafu M, Chohji T (2006) Reaction between calcium phosphate and fluoride in phosphogypsum. J Eur Ceram Soc 26(4–5):767–770.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2005.06.031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Tessier A, Campbell PGC, Bisson M (1979) Sequential extraction procedure for the speciation of particulate trace metals. Anal Chem 51(7):844–851.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ac50043a017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. US EPA method (1992) Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) (1992). Washington D.C. http://www.xenco.com/pdf/tech/SW846/SW846-1000series/SW846-1311.pdf
  61. USEPA (2000) Risk-based concentration table. Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Washington, DC, USAGoogle Scholar
  62. Vidali M (1990) Bioremediation. an overview. Pure Appl Chem 73(7):1163–1172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Wang Q, Garrity GM, Tiedje JM, Cole JR (2007) Naïve Bayesian classifier for rapid assignment of rRNA sequences into the new bacterial taxonomy. Appl Environ Microbiol 73(16):5261–5267.  https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00062-07 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. WHO (2006) Fluoride in Drinking Water. IWA Publishing, LondonGoogle Scholar
  65. Will RK (2016) The benefits of isolating & utilizing fluorine from phosphate operations. Procedia Eng 138:267–272.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2016.02.084 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Xing X, Chen Q (2004) Sampling method of lixiviating toxicity test of phosphogypsum. Heilongjiang Environ J 28(1):64–65 (In Chinese)Google Scholar
  67. Xu L, Luo K, Feng F (2006) Studies on the chemical mobility of fluorine in rocks. Fluoride 39(2):145–151Google Scholar
  68. Xu YX, Hu GM, Li GK (2011) Characteristics of fluorine in environmental and agricultural samples from the fluorosis areas in Eryuan county of Dali city. Hubei Agric Sci 53(20):4962–4965 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  69. Yang J, Tang Y, Yang K et al (2014) Leaching characteristics of vanadium in mine tailings and soils near a vanadium titanomagnetite mining site. J Hazard Mater 264(2):498–504.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.09.063 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Zhao H, Li H, Bao W et al (2014) Experimental study of enhanced phosphogypsum carbonation with ammonia under increased CO2 pressure. J CO2 Util 11:10–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mei Wang
    • 1
  • Ya Tang
    • 1
  • Christopher W. N. Anderson
    • 2
  • Paramsothy Jeyakumar
    • 2
  • Jinyan Yang
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Architecture and EnvironmentSichuan UniversityChengduChina
  2. 2.School of Agriculture and EnvironmentMassey UniversityPalmerston NorthNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations