Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 11, pp 11074–11083 | Cite as

The occurrence of selected xenobiotics in the Danube river via LC-MS/MS

  • Nataša Milić
  • Maja Milanović
  • Jelena Radonić
  • Maja Turk Sekulić
  • Anamarija Mandić
  • Dejan Orčić
  • Aleksandra Mišan
  • Ivan Milovanović
  • Nevena Grujić Letić
  • Mirjana Vojinović Miloradov
Research Article
  • 67 Downloads

Abstract

Having in mind that there is a general lack of monitoring plans and precaution measures in the developing countries and that the Danube is the second longest river in Europe, the estimation of the relevant concentration levels of unregulated xenobiotics is a topic of interest both on local and international level. The selected pharmaceuticals, caffeine, and benzotriazole presented in the collected water samples from seven representative locations around the territory of Novi Sad, Serbia, during 1-year period, were analyzed with the use of solid-phase extraction followed by the liquid chromatography coupled with triple quad tandem mass spectrometry. The most frequently detected compounds were caffeine and carbamazepine in the concentrations up to 621 and 22.2 ng/L, respectively, while the maximum concentration of the analyzed pharmaceuticals was obtained for ibuprofen (60.1 ng/L). The presence of benzotriazole along the analyzed section of the river was confirmed in the concentration levels up to 26.7 ng/L. Although sulfamethoxazole and desmethyldiazepam were detected at trace levels (0.22 and 3.41 ng/L, respectively); the presence of these pharmaceuticals in complex mixtures should not be neglected. Due to the frequent detection caffeine, carbamazepine, ibuprofen, and benzotriazole could be proper candidate for hydrophilic anthropogenic markers for quantification of wastewater contamination in surface water in the analyzed Danube section.

Keywords

The Danube Pharmaceuticals Emerging substances Environmental analysis Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry Water quality 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The work was financially supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Republic of Serbia (III46009) and NATO Science for Peace Project (ESP.EAP.SFP 984087).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nataša Milić
    • 1
  • Maja Milanović
    • 1
  • Jelena Radonić
    • 2
  • Maja Turk Sekulić
    • 2
  • Anamarija Mandić
    • 3
  • Dejan Orčić
    • 4
  • Aleksandra Mišan
    • 3
  • Ivan Milovanović
    • 3
  • Nevena Grujić Letić
    • 1
  • Mirjana Vojinović Miloradov
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of MedicineUniversity of Novi SadNovi SadSerbia
  2. 2.Faculty of Technical SciencesUniversity of Novi SadNovi SadSerbia
  3. 3.Institute of Food TechnologyUniversity of Novi SadNovi SadSerbia
  4. 4.Faculty of SciencesUniversity of Novi SadNovi SadSerbia

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