Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 11, pp 11100–11110 | Cite as

Microwave-assisted extraction and dyeing of chemical and bio-mordanted cotton fabric using harmal seeds as a source of natural dye

  • Shahid Adeel
  • Muhammad Zuber
  • Fazal-ur-Rehman
  • Khalid Mahmood Zia
Research Article


The revival of cultural heritage in a form of natural colorants for textile dyeing is gaining popularity due to their soothing nature and bright shades. The present study was conducted to explore the coloring potential of harmala (Peganum harmala) seeds and to improve color strength of dye using microwave radiations followed by a mordanting process. The results showed that harmala plant seeds could be an excellent source of natural dyes for cotton dyeing if the irradiated acidified methanolic extract (RE, 4 min) is used to dye un-irradiated fabric (NRC) at 85 °C for 45 min using a dye bath of pH 9.0 having salt concentration of 7 g/100 mL. Alum (1%) as pre-mordants and iron (7%) as post-mordants have improved the color strength in chemical mordanting more than other mordants employed. The bio-mordants employed reveal that 10% of acacia as pre-bio-mordants and 7% of acacia as post-bio-mordants are effective amounts to obtain high color strength. Suggested ISO standards for colorfastness illustrate that bio-mordanting has given more excellent rating as compared to chemical mordants. It is concluded that harmala seeds have a great potential to act as a source of natural colorant for cotton dyeing under the influence of microwave radiation.


Cotton Bio-mordanting Colorfastness Harmal Microwave radiation Spectraflash SF 600 



We are thankful to Mr. Zafar Iqbal, Manager of Noor Fatima Fabrics, Faisalabad, Pakistan, and Mr. Muhammad Abbas, Chief Executive of Harris Dyes and Chemicals, Faisalabad, Pakistan, for giving us the technical and scientific guidance at lab-scale experiments and for providing us the facilities of fastener testers to conduct a part of PhD studies. The current work is a part of PhD studies.

Supplementary material

11356_2018_1301_MOESM1_ESM.docx (26 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 26 kb).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryGovt. College UniversityFaisalabadPakistan
  2. 2.Department of Applied ChemistryGovt. College UniversityFaisalabadPakistan

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