Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 10, pp 9873–9886 | Cite as

Highly efficient degradation of berberine chloride form wastewater by a novel three-dimensional electrode photoelectrocatalytic system

  • Rong Liu
  • Yonggang Zhang
Research Article


Fe2O3/graphite (Fe2O3/C) and nano-TiO2-coated glass bead were prepared by impregnation and sol–gel method respectively and employed as the catalyst of a novel three-dimensional electrode photoelectrocatalytic (3-D PEC) system. The photoexcited electrons can transfer from TiO2, Fe2O3 to counter electrode. It improves the migration of photoexcited charges, retards the fast recombination of electron–hole, and increases the lifetime of photogenerated holes (h+). In addition, the cycle reaction of Fe3+/Fe2+ on Fe2O3/C surface enhanced the Fenton reaction which can produce more hydroxyl radicals (·OH) and promote the capacity of mineralization of the pollutants. This novel 3-D PEC system showed excellent performance for the degradation of berberine chloride form (BCF). At the pH value of 3, 93% BCF was removed within 60 min; besides, 98.64% COD removal rate, 78.96% mineralization, 21.47% mineralization current efficiency, and just 3.16 kW h g−1TOC energy cost were obtained in 120 min. In this study, we proposed the 3-D PEC mechanism. Electron spin resonance (ESR) and scavenging experiments suggest that the major reactive oxygen species (ROS) are superoxide radicals (O2·−), ·OH, and h+, while the role of sulfate radical (SO4·−) is insignificant. This work provides a new dimension for the design of reactors for wastewater treatment and the construction of the 3-D PEC system can potentially be utilized in water purification.


Berberine chloride form Photoelectrocatalytic degradation Fe2O3/graphite Supported TiO2 Three-dimensional electrode Degradation mechanism 

Supplementary material

11356_2018_1293_MOESM1_ESM.docx (36 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 36 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Hollow Fiber Membrane Materials and Processes, School of Environmental and Chemical EngineeringTianjin Polytechnic UniversityTianjinChina

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