Numerical simulation of the intra-annual evolution of beryllium-7 (7Ве) in the surface layer of the Black Sea
- 38 Downloads
A numerical model simulating the distribution of 7Ве in the Black Sea was developed and applied to study the spatial and temporal variations in the content of 7Be in the surface waters. Variations in the distribution of 7Ве were analyzed for the period from January to December of 2012. The average seasonal content of 7Ве in the surface layer ranges from 2.2 to 6.2 Bq m−3. The maximum concentration is typical for the eastern part of the sea in winter to spring, and the minimum concentration is typical for the central and western parts of the sea in summer. The seasonally averaged activity of 7Ве on suspended matter ranges from 440 to 1560 Bq kg−1. The highest values are observed in the sea in winter to spring, and the lowest values are typically observed in the central and western parts of the sea in summer. It was revealed that the adsorption of 7Ве on suspended matter is most significant for the evolution of the content of this radionuclide in shelf waters.
KeywordsBeryllium-7 (7Be) Black Sea Surface layer Numerical modeling Space-time variability
The authors thank Sergey V. Stanichny from the Marine Hydrophysical Institute of the RAS for the SKIRON reanalysis data and Arseny A. Kubryakov from the Marine Hydrophysical Institute of the RAS for the MODIS scanner rising radiation brightness data.
The research was conducted within the state assignment of the Federal Agency for Scientific Organizations (FASO Russia) (theme “Fundamental oceanography” No. 0827-2014-0010), supported in part by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (RFBR) (Project No. 16-05-00206).
- Bagaev AV (2012) Three-dimensional hydrophysical model of transport and transformation of anthropogenic persistent chlororganic pollution on the Black Sea shelf. Thesis for a candidate’s degree in physical and mathematical sciences, Sevastopol, 147 p. [in Russian]Google Scholar
- Carder KL, Chen FR, Lee ZP, Hawes SK, Kamykowski D (1999) Semi-analytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures. J Geophys Res 104(C3):5403–5422. https://doi.org/10.1029/1998JC900082 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Chudinovskikh TV, Dymova OA (2010) Numerical simulation of passive admixture concentration fields for estimation of 137Cs reserve in the Black Sea. Monit Syst Environ 14:182–187 [in Russian]Google Scholar
- Demyshev SG, Ivanov VA, Markova NV, Cherkesov LV (2007) Construction of the flow field in the Black Sea on the basis of a vortex-resolving model with the assimilation of climatic temperature and salinity fields. Eco Saf Coastal Shelf Zones Sea 15:215–226 [in Russian]Google Scholar
- Demyshev SG, Korotaev GK (1992) Numerical energy-balanced model of baroclinic ocean currents on grid C. Numerical models and the results of calibrating calculations of currents in the Atlantic Ocean. Institute of Numerical Mathematics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, pp 163–231 [in Russian]Google Scholar
- Gosink IA (1976) On the use of cosmogenic radionuclides of beryllium for ocean transport studies. Mar Sci Commun 2(6):413–417Google Scholar
- Haskell WZ, Kadko D, Hammond DE, Knapp AN, Prokopenkoa MG, Berelsona WM, Caponed DG (2015) Upwelling velocity and eddy diffusivity from 7Be measurements used to compare vertical nutrient flux to export POC flux in the eastern tropical South Pacific. Mar Chem 168:140–150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2014.10.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kremenchutskii DA (2012) 7Ве in the shelf zone of the Black Sea water: the results of measurements. Monit Syst Environ 18:149–152 [in Russian]Google Scholar
- Kremenchutskii DA (2013) The partition of beryllium-7 (7Be) between the suspended material and seawater in the shelf zone of the Black Sea. Eco Saf Coastal Shelf Zones Sea 27:306–311 [in Russian]Google Scholar
- Kremenchutskii DA, Konovalov SK, Batrakov GF, Stanichny SV (2015) Spatio-temporal variability of the flux of beryllium-7 (7Be) on the surface of the Black Sea. Proceedings of the scientific conference with international participation “Modern problems of hydrochemistry and surface water quality monitoring”. Rostov-on-Don 2:247–251 [in Russian]Google Scholar
- Kremenchutskii DA, Kubryakov AA, Zavyalov PO, Konovalov BV, Stanichny SV, Aleskerova AA (2014) Determination of the suspended matter concentration in the Black Sea by MODIS satellite data. Eco Saf Coastal Shelf Zones Sea 29:5–9 [in Russian]Google Scholar
- Lozano RL, San Miguel EG, Bolívar JP, Baskaran M (2011) Depositional fluxes and concentrations of 7Be and 210Pb in bulk precipitation and aerosols at the interface of Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts in Spain. J Geophys Res 116(D18):D18213. https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JD015675 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pacanovsky RC, Philander G (1981) Parametrization of vertical mixing in numerical models of the tropical ocean. J Phys Oceanogr 11(11):442–1451. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(1981)011<1443:POVMIN>2.0.CO;2 Google Scholar
- Skopintsev BA (1975) Formation of the modern chemical composition of the Black Sea. Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad [in Russian]Google Scholar