Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 10, pp 9510–9522 | Cite as

Is trade openness good for environment in South Korea? The role of non-fossil electricity consumption

  • Shun Zhang
Research Article


The paper investigates the linkage of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, per capita real output, share of non-fossil electricity consumption, and trade openness in South Korea from 1971 to 2013. The empirical results indicate that the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is supported by autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) test. Both short- and long-run estimates indicate that increasing non-fossil electricity consumption can mitigate environmental degradation, and increasing trade aggravates carbon dioxide emissions. By Granger causality, long-run causalities are found in both equations of CO2 emissions and trade openness, as well as exports and imports. In the short-run, evidence indicates feedback linkage between output and trade, unidirectional linkages from trade to emissions, from emissions to output, and from output to non-fossil electricity use. Therefore, South Korea should strengthen the sustainable economy, consume clean energy, and develop green trade.


Carbon dioxide emissions Trade openness Share of non-fossil electricity consumption Environmental Kuznets curve South Korea 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of BusinessLuoyang Normal UniversityLuoyangPeople’s Republic of China

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