Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 10, pp 9722–9729 | Cite as

Studies on biogas-fuelled compression ignition engine under dual fuel mode

  • Sunil Kumar Mahla
  • Varun Singla
  • Sarbjot Singh Sandhu
  • Amit Dhir
Research Article


Experimental investigation has been carried out to utilize biogas as an alternative source of energy in compression ignition (CI) engine under dual fuel operational mode. Biogas was inducted into the inlet manifold at different flow rates along with fresh air through inlet manifold and diesel was injected as a pilot fuel to initiate combustion under dual fuel mode. The engine performance and emission characteristics of dual fuel operational mode were analyzed at different biogas flow rates and compared with baseline conventional diesel fuel. Based upon the improved performance and lower emission characteristics under the dual fuel operation, the optimum flow rate of biogas was observed to be 2.2 kg/h. The lower brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and higher brake-specific energy consumption (BSEC) were noticed with biogas-diesel fuel under dual fuel mode when compared with neat diesel operation. Test results showed reduced NO x emissions and smoke opacity level in the exhaust tailpipe emissions. However, higher hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions were noticed under dual fuel mode at entire engine loads when compared with baseline fossil petro-diesel. Hence, the use of low-cost gaseous fuel such as biogas would be an economically viable proposition to address the current and future problems of energy scarcity and associated environmental concerns.


Biogas Dual fuel NOx CI engine Emission 



Oxides of nitrogen


Particulate matter


Revolutions per minute


Carbon dioxide


Carbon monoxide






Before top dead center


Compression ignition


Brake thermal efficiency


Brake-specific energy consumption


Hydraulic retention time


Funding information

The research work reported here is the part of DST-SERB sponsored fast track project entitled “Studies on combustion, performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine fuelled with Biodiesel and Biogas” (SB/FTP/ETA-306/2013). The financial support extended in the project is gratefully acknowledged.


  1. Barik D, Murugan S (2014a) Investigation on combustion performance and emission characteristics of a DI (direct injection) diesel engine fueled with biogas-diesel in dual fuel mode. Energy 72:760–771. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barik D, Murugan S (2014b) Simultaneous reduction of NOx and smoke in a dual fuel DI diesel engine. Energy Convers Manag 84:217–226. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bedoya ID, Arrieta AA, Cadavid FJ (2009) Effects of mixing system and pilot fuel quality on diesel and biogas dual fuel engine performance. Bioresour Technol 100(24):6624–6629. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bora BJ, Debnath BK, Gupta N, Saha UK, Sahoo N (2013) Investigation on the flow behaviour of a venturi type gas mixer designed for dual fuel diesel engines. Int J Emerg Technol Adv Eng 3:202–209Google Scholar
  5. Bora BJ, Saha UK (2015) Comparative assessment of a biogas run dual fuel diesel engine with rice bran oil methyl ester, pongamia oil methyl ester and palm oil methyl ester as pilot fuels. Renew Energy 81:490–498. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chandra R, Vijay VK, Subbarao PMV, Khura TK (2011) Performance evaluation of a constant speed IC engine on CNG methane enriched biogas and biogas. Appl Energy 88(11):3969–3977. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Debnath BK, Sahoo N, Saha UK (2013) Adjusting the operating characteristics to improve the performance of an emulsified palm oil methyl ester run diesel engine. Energy Convers Manag 69:191–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gnanamoorthi V, Devaradjane G (2015) Effect of compression ratio on the performance, combustion and emission of DI diesel engine fueled with ethanol diesel blend. J Energy Inst 88(1):19–26. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hyun YS, Sik LC (2011) Experimental investigation on the combustion and exhaust emission characteristics of biogas-biodiesel dual fuel combustion in a CI engine. Fuel Process Technol 92:992–1000CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jindal M, Rosha P, Mahla SK, Dhir A (2015) Experimental investigation of performance and emissions characteristics of waste cooking oil biodiesel and n-butanol blends in a compression ignition engine. RSC Adv 5(43):33863–33868. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Liu J, Yang F, Wang H, Ouyang M, Hao S (2013) Effects of pilot fuel quantity on the emissions characteristics of a CNG/diesel dual fuel engine with optimized pilot injection timing. Appl Energy 110:201–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Liu J, Yao A, Yao C (2015) Effects of diesel injection pressure on the performance and emissions of a HD common-rail diesel engine fueled with diesel/methanol dual fuel. Fuel 140:192–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Mahla SK, Das LM, Babu MKG (2010) Effect of EGR on performance and emission characteristics of natural gas fuelled diesel engine. Jor J Mech Ind Eng 4(4):523–530Google Scholar
  14. Maroušek J (2012) Finding the optimal parameters for the steam explosion process of hay. Rev Téc Ing Univ Zulia 35(2):170–178Google Scholar
  15. Maroušek J, Haskova S, Marouskova A, Myskova K, Vanickova R, Vachal J, Zeman R, Zak J (2015) Financial and biotechnological assessment of new oil extraction technology. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects 37(16):1723–1728. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Maroušek J, Itoh S, Higa O, Yoshikazu K, Ueno M, Suwa R, Komiya Y, Tominaga J, Kawamitsu Y (2012) The use of underwater high-voltage discharges to improve the efficiency of Jatrophacurcas L. biodiesel production. Biotechnol Appl Biochem 59(6):451–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mustafi NN, Raine RR, Verhelst S (2013), Combustion and emissions characteristics of a dual fuel engine operated on alternative gaseous fuels. Fuel 109: 669-678.Google Scholar
  18. Nijaguna BT (2006) Biogas technology. New Age International PublishersGoogle Scholar
  19. Obed AM, Mamat R, Najafi G, Yusaf T, Ardebili SMS (2015) Optimization of biodiesel-diesel blended fuel properties and engine performance with ether additive using statistical analysis and response surface methods. Energies 8:14136–14150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Pandian AK, Ramakrishnan RBB, Devarajan Y (2017) Emission analysis on the effect of nanoparticles on neat biodiesel in unmodified diesel engine. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24(29):23273–23278. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Papagiannakis RG, Hountalas DT, Rakopoulus CD (2007) Theoretical study of the effects of pilot fuel quantity and its injection timing on the performance and emissions of a dual fuel diesel engine. Energy Convers Manag 48(11):2951–2961. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Papagiannakis RG, Rakopoulus CD, Hountalas DT, Rakopoulus DC (2010) Emission characteristics of high speed, dual fuel, compression ignition engine operating in a wide range of natural gas/diesel fuel proportions. Fuel 89(7):1397–1406. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Porpatham E, Ramesh A, Nagalingam B (2008) Investigation on the effect of concentration of methane in biogas when used as a fuel for a spark ignition engine. Fuel 87(8–9):1651–1659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Porpatham E, Ramesh A, Nagalingam B (2012) Effect of compression ratio on the performance and combustion of a biogas fuelled spark ignition engine. Energy Convers Manag 95:247–256Google Scholar
  25. Prakash R, Singh RK, Murugan S (2013) Experimental investigation on a diesel engine fueled with bio-oil derived from waste wood-biodiesel emulsions. Energy 55:610–618. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Pullen J, Saeed K (2014) Factors affecting biodiesel engine performance and exhaust emissions. Part I: review. Energy 72:1–16. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sahoo BB (2011) Clean development mechanism potential of compression ignition diesel engines using gaseous fuel in dual fuel mode. Ph.D thesis, Centre for Energy, IIT Guwahati, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  28. Sahoo BB, Sahoo N, Saha UK (2009) Effect of engine parameters and type of gaseous fuel on the performance of dual-fuel gas diesel engines—a critical review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 13(6-7):1151–1184. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Weiland P (2010) Biogas production: current state and perspectives. ApplMicrobiolBiotechnol 85:849–860Google Scholar
  30. Wu HW, Wang RH, Chen YC, Ou DJ, Chen TY (2014) Influence of port-inducted ethanol or gasoline on combustion and emission of a closed cycle diesel engine. Energy 64:259–267. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringI.K. Gujral Punjab Technical University CampusHoshiarpurIndia
  2. 2.Adesh Institute of Engineering and TechnologyFaridkotIndia
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringNational Institute of TechnologyJalandharIndia
  4. 4.School of Energy and EnvironmentThapar Institute of Engineering and TechnologyPatialaIndia

Personalised recommendations