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Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 10, pp 9454–9460 | Cite as

Heath risk among pesticide sellers in Bamenda (Cameroon) and peripheral areas

  • Jean Sonchieu
  • Edouard Nantia Akono
  • Cheche Tanwi Ngwamitang
  • Benoït Martin Ngassoum
Research Article

Abstract

In Bamenda and peripheral zones, studies have been focused on the effects of pesticides on farmers (pesticide users) while nothing has been done to assess the exposure of sellers to pesticides. This study aimed at evaluating the exposure of pesticide sellers in the same area. Thirty-two questionnaires were administered to 32 pesticide sellers systematically selected, and chi-square was used for statistical analysis. From each shop, a respondent was chosen among the workers according to its daily time spent in the workplace. The results showed that there is similarity between sellers in Bamenda and peripheral area; one active ingredient (metalaxyl) and one formulation (beauchamp) sold are not registered; throat irritation, headaches, fatigue, skin irritation, eye irritation, and difficulty in breathing with more cases of nose irritation were symptoms observed; pesticides are stored either in the shops or in warehouses; safety measures generally applied are sitting outside the shop, taking medicated charcoal and the use of protective clothing; 56% have less than 5 years experience. Permanent pesticide sellers are then exposed to chronic intoxication in Bamenda and neighboring zones. Employers should make use of protective clothing in their shops when manipulating pesticides in the application of safety measures.

Keywords

Pesticide sellers Agrochemical shops Signs/symptoms Exposure 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors sincerely thank all the pesticide sellers who willingly participated in the collection of data for this study.

Contributions

Sonchieu Jean, senior lecturer and corresponding author, supervised and coordinated the collection of data. Nantia Akono Edouard, senior lecturer, assisted in coordinating, collecting, and organizing data. Tanwi Cheche, student, collected and organized the data. Ngassoum Martin Benoit, professor, overviewed all the work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

11356_2018_1243_MOESM1_ESM.docx (27 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 27 kb)
11356_2018_1243_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx (28 kb)
ESM 2 (XLSX 28 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean Sonchieu
    • 1
  • Edouard Nantia Akono
    • 3
  • Cheche Tanwi Ngwamitang
    • 1
  • Benoït Martin Ngassoum
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Social Economy and Family Management, HTTTCThe University of BamendaBamendaCameroon
  2. 2.Department of Applied Chemistry, ENSAIUniversity of NgaoundereNgaoundéréCameroon
  3. 3.Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of BamendaBamendaCameroon

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