Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 25, Issue 10, pp 9523–9538 | Cite as

Analytical characterization of products obtained from slow pyrolysis of Calophyllum inophyllum seed cake: study on performance and emission characteristics of direct injection diesel engine fuelled with bio-oil blends

  • Sakthivel Rajamohan
  • Ramesh Kasimani
Research Article


This paper aims to analyse the characteristics and properties of the fractions obtained from slow pyrolysis of non-edible seed cake of Calophyllum inophyllum (CI). The gas, bio-oil and biochar obtained from the pyrolysis carried out at 500 °C in a fixed bed batch type reactor at a heating rate of 30 °C/min were characterized by various analytical techniques. Owing to the high volatile content of CI biomass (72.61%), it was selected as the raw material in this present investigation. GC-MS and FT-IR analysis of bio-oil showed the presence of higher amount of oxygenated compounds, phenol derivatives, esters, acid and furans. The physicochemical properties of the bio-oil were tested as per ASTM norms which imply that bio-oil is a highly viscous liquid with lower heating value as compared to that of diesel fuel. The chemical composition of evolved gas was analysed by using GC testing which revealed the presence of combustible components. The FT-IR characterization of biochar showed the presence of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons whereas the elevated amount of carbon in biochar indicates its potential to be used as solid fuel. The performance and emission characteristics of CI engine were assessed with different CI bio-oil blends and compared with baseline diesel fuel. The results showed that addition of bio-oil leads to decreased brake thermal efficiency and increased brake specific energy consumption. Meanwhile, increase in blend ratio reduces harmful pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen and smoke in the exhaust. From the engine testing, it is suggested to employ 20% of CI bio-oil blends in CI engine to obtain better operation.


Calophyllum inophyllum Pyrolysis Bio-oil GC-MS Engine Emission 



Calophyllum inophyllum


American Society for Testing Materials


Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy


Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry


Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis


Proportional integral derivative


Brake thermal efficiency


Brake specific energy consumption


Brake mean effective pressure


Carbon monoxide




Oxides of nitrogen



The authors would like to acknowledge Dr. T. Meenambal, Former Principal Advisor, TEQIP II—Centre of Excellence for Environmental Studies (COE-Es), Government College of Technology Coimbatore, 641013, Tamil Nadu State, India, for support to conduct the series of experiments and management of Karunya University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India for their support to conduct gas chromatography experiments.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Research ScholarGovernment College of TechnologyCoimbatoreIndia
  2. 2.ThanjavurIndia
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringGovernment College of TechnologyCoimbatoreIndia

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