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Effect of levofloxacin, pazufloxacin, enrofloxacin, and meloxicam on the immunolocalization of ABCG-2 transporter protein in rabbit retina

Abstract

Adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) sub-family G member-2 (ABCG-2) is a transporter protein, implicated for multi-drug efflux from tissues. This study evaluated the effect of fluoroquinolones; levofloxacin, pazufloxacin and enrofloxacin, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, meloxicam; on the immunolocalization of ABCG-2 transporter protein of rabbit retinas. Thirty-two male rabbits were randomly divided in to eight groups. Control group was gavaged, 2% benzyl alcohol in 5% dextrose since these chemicals are excipients of the drug preparations used in the treatment groups of this study. Four groups were exclusively gavaged, levofloxacin hemihydrate (10 mg/kg body weight b.i.d 12 h), pazufloxacin mesylate (10 mg/kg body weight b.i.d 12 h), enrofloxacin (20 mg/kg body weight o.d.), and meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg body weight o.d.), respectively. Three other groups were co-gavaged meloxicam with above fluoroquinolones, respectively. These drugs were administered for 21 days. ABCG-2 immunolocalization was mild in the retinas of control and levofloxacin-alone-treated groups. The immunolocalization intensity was significantly higher in meloxicam-alone-treated group when compared to control and levofloxacin-alone-treated groups. Immunolocalization of this transporter increased in the levofloxacin-meloxicam co-treated group when compared to the levofloxacin-alone-treated group. Highest immunolocalization was observed in the enrofloxacin-meloxicam co-treated group although the immunolocalization of all treatment groups, except the levofloxacin-alone-treated group, was significantly higher than the control and levofloxacin-alone-treated groups.

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Acknowledgements

Authors are thankful to Dr. Kuldeep Gupta, Associate Professor, Veterinary Pathology, GADVASU, Ludhiana, for his valuable help.

Funding

The current research has been carried out at the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, GADVASU, Ludhiana. The study is a part of the research project, “Evaluation of retinopathic potential of fluoroquinolones” assigned by the University Grants Commission, India, to the Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, GASVASU, Ludhiana, vide letter no. FNo. 40-279/2011(SR). Financial assistance to the project has been made by the University Grants Commission, India.

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Correspondence to Adil Mehraj Khan.

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues

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Khan, A.M., Rampal, S. & Sood, N.K. Effect of levofloxacin, pazufloxacin, enrofloxacin, and meloxicam on the immunolocalization of ABCG-2 transporter protein in rabbit retina. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25, 8853–8860 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-1216-y

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-1216-y

Keywords

  • ABCG-2 transporter
  • Levofloxacin
  • Pazufloxacin
  • Enrofloxacin
  • Meloxicam
  • Retina