Skip to main content

Effect of diesel-methanol-nitromethane blends combustion on VCR stationary CI engine performance and exhaust emissions

Abstract

The continuous rise in cost of fossil fuels and environmental pollution has attracted research in the area of clean alternative fuels for improving the performance and emission of internal combustion engines. In the present work, methanol and nitromethane were treated as a biofuel and investigations have been made to evaluate the feasibility of replacing diesel with a suitable diesel-methanol-nitromethane blend. For this, experimental investigations were carried out on a VCR diesel engine using diesel-methanol-nitromethane blends to determine the most favorable blending ratio and engine operating parameters for enhancing performance and reduce emissions. The best results of performance and emissions were observed with D-M5-NM2.5 blend (diesel 92.5%, methanol 5%, nitromethane 2.5%) at standard engine parameters. The improvement in engine performance (13% increment in BTE and 19.5% decrement in BSFC) and reduction in emission (smoke 26.47%, NOx 21.66%, and CO 14.28%) was found using D-M5-NM2.5 blend as compared to pure diesel at full load condition; however, HC emission was slightly increased by 10.71%. To find out the best suitable value of CR for D-M5-NM2.5 blend, experiments were further performed on different compression ratios by which higher compression ratio of 19.5 was found better under similar operating conditions. By increasing CR from 18.5 (standard) to 19.5, improvement in engine performance (BTE increased 3.8% and BSFC decreased 3.4%) and reduction in emission (smoke 10%, CO 16.67%, and HC 61.29%) were observed using D-M5-NM2.5 blend; however, NOx was found to be on slightly higher side with tolerable increment of 6.38%.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18
Fig. 19
Fig. 20

Abbreviations

BP:

Brake power

BSFC:

Brake specific fuel consumption

BTE:

Brake thermal efficiency

CA btdc:

Crank angle before top dead centre

CI:

Compression ignition

CN:

Cetane number

CNG:

Compressed natural gas

CO:

Carbon monoxide

CO2 :

Carbon dioxide

CR:

Compression ratio

D:

Diesel

DI:

Direct injection

EGR:

Exhaust gas recirculation

h:

Hours

HC:

Hydrocarbons

HSU:

Hartridge smoke units

IC:

Internal combustion

IMEP:

Indicated mean effective pressure

IP:

Injection pressure

IT:

Injection timing

kg:

Kilogram

kW:

Kilowatt

M:

Methanol

NE:

Nitroethane

NM:

Nitromethane

Nm:

Newton meter

NOx:

Nitrogen oxides

PC:

Personal computer

PM:

Particulate matter

ppm:

Parts per million

rpm:

Revolution per minutes

SI:

Spark ignition

VCR:

Variable compression ratio

Vol.:

Volume

v/v:

Volume by volume

References

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to Rajasthan Technical University (RTU), Kota and Swami Keshvanand Institute of Technology, Management and Gramothan (SKIT), Jaipur, for providing the research facility to conduct this study.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Chandan Kumar.

Additional information

Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kumar, C., Rana, K.B. & Tripathi, B. Effect of diesel-methanol-nitromethane blends combustion on VCR stationary CI engine performance and exhaust emissions. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26, 6517–6531 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-04058-1

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-04058-1

Keywords

  • Diesel
  • Methanol
  • Nitromethane
  • VCR diesel engine
  • Engine performance
  • Emission