Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 24, Issue 30, pp 23679–23693 | Cite as

Factors controlling groundwater quality in the Yeonjegu District of Busan City, Korea, using the hydrogeochemical processes and fuzzy GIS

  • Senapathi Venkatramanan
  • Sang Yong Chung
  • Sekar Selvam
  • Seung Yeop Lee
  • Hussam Eldin Elzain
Research Article


The hydrogeochemical processes and fuzzy GIS techniques were used to evaluate the groundwater quality in the Yeonjegu district of Busan Metropolitan City, Korea. The highest concentrations of major ions were mainly related to the local geology. The seawater intrusion into the river water and municipal contaminants were secondary contamination sources of groundwater in the study area. Factor analysis represented the contamination sources of the mineral dissolution of the host rocks and domestic influences. The Gibbs plot exhibited that the major ions were derived from the rock weathering condition. Piper’s trilinear diagram showed that the groundwater quality was classified into five types of CaHCO3, NaHCO3, NaCl, CaCl2, and CaSO4 types in that order. The ionic relationship and the saturation mineral index of the ions indicated that the evaporation, dissolution, and precipitation processes controlled the groundwater chemistry. The fuzzy GIS map showed that highly contaminated groundwater occurred in the northeastern and the central parts and that the groundwater of medium quality appeared in most parts of the study area. It suggested that the groundwater quality of the study area was influenced by local geology, seawater intrusion, and municipal contaminants. This research clearly demonstrated that the geochemical analyses and fuzzy GIS method were very useful to identify the contaminant sources and the location of good groundwater quality.


Groundwater quality Hydrogeochemical processes Factor analysis Piper’s diagram Saturation index Fuzzy GIS 



This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2016R1D1A3B03934558). We express a deep gratitude to two anonymous reviewers for their fruitful comments.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.BK21 Plus Project of the School of Earth Environmental Hazard SystemPukyong National UniversityBusanSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of Earth and Environmental SciencesPukyong National UniversityBusanSouth Korea
  3. 3.Department of GeologyV O Chidambaram CollegeTuticorinIndia
  4. 4.High Level Waste Disposal Research CenterKorea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI)DaejeonSouth Korea
  5. 5.Division of Earth Environmental System SciencePukyong National UniversityBusanSouth Korea

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