Advertisement

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 24, Issue 30, pp 23679–23693 | Cite as

Factors controlling groundwater quality in the Yeonjegu District of Busan City, Korea, using the hydrogeochemical processes and fuzzy GIS

  • Senapathi Venkatramanan
  • Sang Yong Chung
  • Sekar Selvam
  • Seung Yeop Lee
  • Hussam Eldin Elzain
Research Article
  • 142 Downloads

Abstract

The hydrogeochemical processes and fuzzy GIS techniques were used to evaluate the groundwater quality in the Yeonjegu district of Busan Metropolitan City, Korea. The highest concentrations of major ions were mainly related to the local geology. The seawater intrusion into the river water and municipal contaminants were secondary contamination sources of groundwater in the study area. Factor analysis represented the contamination sources of the mineral dissolution of the host rocks and domestic influences. The Gibbs plot exhibited that the major ions were derived from the rock weathering condition. Piper’s trilinear diagram showed that the groundwater quality was classified into five types of CaHCO3, NaHCO3, NaCl, CaCl2, and CaSO4 types in that order. The ionic relationship and the saturation mineral index of the ions indicated that the evaporation, dissolution, and precipitation processes controlled the groundwater chemistry. The fuzzy GIS map showed that highly contaminated groundwater occurred in the northeastern and the central parts and that the groundwater of medium quality appeared in most parts of the study area. It suggested that the groundwater quality of the study area was influenced by local geology, seawater intrusion, and municipal contaminants. This research clearly demonstrated that the geochemical analyses and fuzzy GIS method were very useful to identify the contaminant sources and the location of good groundwater quality.

Keywords

Groundwater quality Hydrogeochemical processes Factor analysis Piper’s diagram Saturation index Fuzzy GIS 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2016R1D1A3B03934558). We express a deep gratitude to two anonymous reviewers for their fruitful comments.

References

  1. Adhikary PP, Dash CJ, Chandrasekharan H, Rajput TBS, Dubey SK (2012) Evaluation of groundwater quality for irrigation and drinking using GIS and geostatistics in a peri-urban area of Delhi, India. Arab J Geosci 5:1423–1434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen D, Suchy M (2001) Geochemical evolution of groundwater on Saturna Island, British Columbia. Can J Earth Sci 38:1059–1080CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. American Public Health Association (APHA) (1995) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 19th edn. Public health association, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  4. Appelo CAJ, Postma D (2005) Geochemistry, groundwater and pollution, 2nd edn. Balkema, RotterdamCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bonham-Carter GF (1996) Geographic information systems for geoscientists: modelling with GIS. Computer methods in the geo-sciences, vol. 13. Elsevier Sci Pub, Pergamon, p 98Google Scholar
  6. Bouzourra H, Bouhlila R, Elango L, Slama F, Ouslati N (2015) Characterization of mechanisms and processes of groundwater salinization in irrigated coastal area using statistics, GIS, and hydrogeochemical investigations. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:2643–2660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brindha K, Neena Vaman KV, Srinivasan K, Sathis Babu M, Elango L (2014) Identification of surface water-groundwater interaction by hydrogeochemical indicators and assessing its suitability for drinking and irrigational purposes in Chennai, southern India. Appl Water Sci 4:159–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chae GT, Yun ST, Kim K, Mayer B (2006) Hydrogeochemistry of sodium-bicarbonate type bed rock groundwater in the Pocheon spa area, South Korea: water–rock interaction and hydrologic mixing. J Hydrol 321:326–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chidambaram S, Anandhan P, Prasanna MV, Ramanathan AL, Srinivasamoorthy K, Sethil Kumar G (2012) Hydrogeochemical modelling for groundwater in Neyveli aquifer, Tamil Nadu, India, using PHREEQC: a case study. Nat Resour Res 21:311–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chitsazan M, Aghazadeh N, Mirzaee Y, Golestan Y, Mosavi S (2017) Hydrochemical characteristics and quality assessment of urban groundwater in Urmia City, NW Iran. Water Sci Technol Water Supply.  https://doi.org/10.2166/ws.2017.039
  11. Choi HS, Koh YK, Bae DS, Park SS, Hutcheon I, Yun ST (2005) Estimation of deep reservoir temperature of CO2-rich springs in Kangwon district. South Korea J 6:112–118Google Scholar
  12. Chung SY, Venkatramanan S, Kim TH, Kim DS, Ramkumar T (2015) Influence of hydrogeochemical processes and assessment of suitability for groundwater uses in Busan City, Korea. Environ Dev Sustain 17:423–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dahiya S, Singh B, Gaur S, Garg VK, Kushwaha HS (2007) Analysis of groundwater quality using fuzzy synthetic evaluation. J Hazard Mater 147:938–946CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gibbs RJ (1970) Mechanisms controlling world water chemistry. Science 170:1088–1090CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gibrilla A, Osae S, Akiti TT, Adomako D (2010) Hydrogeochemical and groundwater quality studies in the northern part of the Densu River basin of Ghana. J Water Resour Prot 2:1071–1081CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Guler C, Thyne G (2004) Hydrologic and geologic factors controlling surface and groundwater chemistry in Indian Wells-Owens Valley area, southeastern California, USA. J Hydrol 285:177–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Howarth RW, Anderson D, Cloern J, Elfring C, Hopkinson C, Lapointe B, Malone T, Marcus N, McGlathery K, Sharpley A, Walker D (2000) Nutrient pollution of coastal rivers, bays, and seas. Issues Ecol 7Google Scholar
  18. Jhariya DC, Kumar T, Dewangan R, Dharm P, Kumar P (2017) Assessment of groundwater quality index for drinking purpose in the Durg district, Chhattisgarh using geographical information system (GIS) and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) techniques. J Geol Soc India 89:453–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kannel PR, Lee S, Kannel SR, Khan SP (2007) Chemometric application in classification and assessment of monitoring locations of an urban river systems. Anal Chem Acta 582:390–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kim K, Jeong GY (2005) Factors influencing natural occurrence of fluoride-rich groundwaters: a case study in the southeastern part of the Korean peninsula. Chemosphere 58:399–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kumar D, Alappat BJ (2005) Analysis of leachate pollution index and formulation of sub-leachate pollution indices. Waste Manag Res 23(3):230–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kumar KS, Rammohan V, Sahayam JD, Jeevanandam M (2009) Assessment of groundwater quality and hydrogeochemistry of Manimuktha River basin, Tamil Nadu, India. Environ Monit Assess 159:341–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lermontov A, Yokoyama L, Lermontov M, Machado MAS (2009) River quality analysis using fuzzy water quality index: Ribeira do Iguape river watershed, Brazil. Ecol Indic 9:1188–1197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Li P, Wu J, Qian H (2013) Assessment of groundwater quality for irrigation purposes and identification of hydrogeochemical evolution mechanisms in Pengyang country, China. Environ Earth Sci 69:2211–2225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Li P, Wu J, Qian H (2016a) Hydrochemical appraisal of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation purposes and the major influencing factors: a case study in and around Hua County, China. Arab J Geosci 9(1):15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Li P, Wu J, Qian H, Zhang Y, Yang N, Jing L, Yu P (2016b) Hydrogeochemical characterization of groundwater in and around a wastewater irrigated forest in the southeastern edge of the Tengger Desert, Northwest China. Exposure Health 8:331–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Liu CW, Lin KH, Kuo YM (2003) Application of factor analysis in the assessment of groundwater quality in a Blackfoot disease area in Taiwan. Sci Total Environ 313:77–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Love D, Hallbauer D, Amos A, Hranova R (2004) Factor analysis as a tool in groundwater quality management: two southern African case studies. Phys Chem Earth 29:1135–1143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Magesh NS, Krishnakumar S, Chandrasekar N, Soundranayagam JP (2013) Groundwater quality assessment using WQI and GIS techniques, Dindigul district, Tamil Nadu, India. Arab J Geosci 6:4179–4189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Masoud AA (2014) Groundwater quality assessment of the shallow aquifers west of the Nile Delta (Egypt) using multivariate statistical and geostatistical techniques. J African Earth Sci 95:123–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mondal NC, Singh VS, Singh VP, Saxena VK (2010) Determining the interaction between groundwater and saline water through groundwater major ions chemistry. J Hydrol 388:100–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mondal NC, Singh VS, Saxena VK, Singh VP (2011) Assessment of seawater impact using major hydrochemical ions : a case study from Sadras, Tamilnadu, India. Environ Monit Assess 177:315–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mtoni Y, Mjemah IC, Bakundukize C, Camp MV, Martens K, Walraevens K (2013) Saltwater intrusion and nitrate pollution in the coastal aquifer of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Environ Earth Sci 70:1091–1111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mustapha A, Aris AZ, Juahir H, Ramli MF, Kura NU (2013) River water quality assessment using environmentric techniques: case study of Jakara River basin. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:5630–5644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Park SC, Yun ST, Chae GT, Yoo IS, Shin KS, Heo CH et al (2005) Regional hydrochemical study on salinization of coastal aquifers, western coastal area of South Korea. J Hydrol 313:182–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Parkhurst DL, Appelo CAJ (1999) User’s guide to PHREEQC (version 2)—a computer program for speciation, batch-reaction, one-dimensional transport, and inverse geochemical calculations. U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, p 312Google Scholar
  37. Petry FE, Robinson VB, Cobb MA (2004) Fuzzy modeling with spatial information for geographic problems. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  38. Piper AM (1953) A graphic procedure of the geo-chemical interpretation of water analysis. USGS Groundwater Note no 12Google Scholar
  39. Pius A, Jerome C, Sharma N (2012) Evaluation of groundwater quality in and around Peenya industrial area of Bangalore, South India using GIS techniques. Environ Monit Assess 184:4067–4077CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Prasanna MV, Chidambaram S, Shahul Hameed A, Srinivasamoorthy K (2010) Study of evaluation of groundwater in Gadilam Basin using hydrogeochemical and isotope data. Environ Monit Assess 168:63–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Saidi S, Bouri S, Dhia HB (2013) Groundwater management based on GIS techniques, chemical indicators and vulnerability to seawater intrusion modelling: application to the Mahdia–Ksour Essaf aquifer, Tunisia. Environ Earth Sci 70:1551–1568Google Scholar
  42. Sajil Kumar PJ, Elango L, James EJ (2014) Assessment of hydrochemistry and groundwater quality in the coastal area of South Chennai, India. Arab J Geosci 7:2641–2653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sasikala KR, Petrou M (2001) Generalized fuzzy aggregation in estimating the risk of desertification of a burned forest. Fuzzy Sets Syst 118:121–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Selvam S, Dar FA, Magesh NS, Singaraja C, Venkatramanan S, Chung SY (2016) Application of remote sensing and GIS for delineating groundwater recharge potential zones of Kovilpatti municipality, Tamil Nadu using IF technique. Earth Sci Inf 9:137–150.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12145-015-0242-2 1-14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Shahid SU, Iqbal J, Hasnain G (2014) Groundwater quality assessment and its correlation with gastroenteritis using GIS: a case study of Rawal town, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Environ Monit Assess 186:7525–7537.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-014-3945-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Silvert W (2000) Fuzzy indices of environmental conditions. Ecol Model 130:111–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Singh VS, Saxena VK (2004) Assessment of utilization groundwater resources in a coastal shallow aquifer. In: Proceeding of the 2nd Asia Pacific association of hydrology & water resources conferences, Singapore, Vol II, 357–364Google Scholar
  48. Singh KP, Malik A, Singh VK, Mohan D, Sinha S (2005) Chemometric analysis of groundwater quality data of alluvial aquifer of Gangetic plain, North India. Anal Chim Acta 550:82–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Srinivasamoorthy K, Vijayaraghavan K, Vasanthavigar M, Sarma S, Chidambaram S, Anandhan P, Manivannan R (2012) Assessment of groundwater quality with special emphasis on fluoride contamination in crystalline bed rock aquifers of Mettur region, Tamilnadu, India. Arab J Geosci 5:83–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. StatSoft (2008) STATISTICA ver 9. http://www.statsoft.com
  51. Tjandra FL, Kondhoh A, Mohammed AMA (2003) A conceptual database design for hydrology using GIS (pp. 13–15). Kyoto: proceedings of Asia pacific association of hydrology and water resourcesGoogle Scholar
  52. Van der Weijden CH, Pacheco FAL (2006) Hydrogeochemistry in the Vouga River basin (central Portugal): pollution and chemical weathering. Appl Geochem 21:580–613Google Scholar
  53. Venkatramanan S, Chung SY, Ramkumar T, Gnanachandrasamy G, Vasudevan S, Lee SY (2014) Application of GIS and hydrogeochemistry of groundwater pollution status of Nagapattinam district of Tamil Nadu, India. Environ Earth Sci 73(8):4429–4442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Venkatramanan S, Chung SY, Rajesh R, Lee SY, Ramkumar T, Prasanna MV (2015a) Comprehensive studies of hydrogeochemical processes and quality status of groundwater with tools of cluster, grouping analysis, and fuzzy set method using GIS platform: a case study of Dalcheon in Ulsan City, Korea. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22(15):11209–11223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Venkatramanan S, Chung SY, Ramkumar T, Rajesh R, Gnanachandrasamy G (2015b) Assessment of groundwater quality using GIS and CCME WQI techniques: a case study of Thiruthuraipoondi city in Cauvery deltaic region, Tamil Nadu, India. Desalin Water Treat 1:1–16Google Scholar
  56. Venkatramanan S, Chung SY, Kim TH, Kim BW, Selvam S (2016) Geostatical techniques to evaluate groundwater contamination and its sources in Miryang City, Korea. Environ Earth Sci 75:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Voutsis N, Kelepertzis E, Tziritis E, Kelepertsis A (2015) Assessing the hydrogeochemistry of groundwaters in ophiolite areas of Euboea Island, Greece, using multivariate statistical methods. J Geochem Explor 159:79–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. WHO (World Health Organization) (2011) Guidelines for drinking water quality, 3rd edn. WHO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  59. Wu J, Li P, Qian H, Duan Z, Zhang X (2014) Using correlation and multivariate statistical analysis to identify hydrogeochemical processes affecting the major ion chemistry of waters: a case study in Laoheba phosphorite mine in Sichuan, China. Arab J Geosci 7:3973–3982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Yanar TA, Akyürek Z (2006) The enhancement of the cell-based GIS analyses with fuzzy processing capabilities. Inf Sci 176:1067–1085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Yaouti FE, Mandour AE, Khattach D, Benavente J, Kaufmann O (2009) Salinization processes in the unconfined aquifer of Bou-Areg (NE Morocco): a geostatistical, geochemical, and tomographic study. Appl Geochem 24:16–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Zhou X, Ruan X, Pan Z, Zhu X, Sun H (2010) Application of factor analysis in the assessment of groundwater quality. AIP Conf Proc 1251:33–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.BK21 Plus Project of the School of Earth Environmental Hazard SystemPukyong National UniversityBusanSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of Earth and Environmental SciencesPukyong National UniversityBusanSouth Korea
  3. 3.Department of GeologyV O Chidambaram CollegeTuticorinIndia
  4. 4.High Level Waste Disposal Research CenterKorea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI)DaejeonSouth Korea
  5. 5.Division of Earth Environmental System SciencePukyong National UniversityBusanSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations