Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 24, Issue 30, pp 23584–23597 | Cite as

Dynamics of copper and tetracyclines during composting of water hyacinth biomass amended with peat or pig manure

  • Xin Lu
  • Lizhu Liu
  • Ruqin Fan
  • Jia Luo
  • Shaohua Yan
  • Zed Rengel
  • Zhenhua Zhang
Research Article


Composting is one of the post-treatment methods for phytoremediation plants. Due to a high potential of water hyacinth to accumulate pollutants, the physicochemical parameters, microbial activity as well as fates of copper (Cu) and tetracyclines (TCs) were investigated for the different amended water hyacinth biomass harvested from intensive livestock and poultry wastewater, including unamended water hyacinth (W), water hyacinth amended with peat (WP), and water hyacinth amended with pig manure (WPM) during the composting process. Pig manure application accelerated the composting process as evidenced by an increase of temperature, electrical conductivity (EC), NH4-N, as well as functional diversity of microbial communities compared to W and WP treatments. Composting process was slowed down by high Cu, but not by TCs. The addition of peat significantly increased the residual fraction of Cu, while pig manure addition increased available Cu concentration in the final compost. Cu could be effectively transformed into low available (oxidizable) and residual fractions after fermentation. In contrast, less than 0.5% of initial concentrations of TCs were determined at the end of 60-day composting for all treatments in the final composts. The dissipation of TCs was accelerated by the high Cu concentration during composting. Therefore, composting is an effective method for the post-treatment and resource utilization of phytoremediation plants containing Cu and/or TCs.


Composting Copper Phytoremediation plant Speciation availability Tetracyclines 



This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31500436), Jiangsu Agriculture Science and Technology Innovation Fund (CX (15)1003-6), and Science and Technology Supporting Program of Jiangsu Province (BE2013436).


  1. Arikan OA, Sikora LJ, Mulbry W, Khan SU, Foster GD (2007) Composting rapidly reduces levels of extractable oxytetracycline in manure from therapeutically treated beef calves. Bioresour Technol 98:169–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bernal MP, Alburquerque JA, Moral R (2009) Composting of animal manures and chemical criteria for compost maturity assessment. A review. Bioresour Technol 100:5444–5453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boleas S, Alonso C, Pro J, Fern’andez C, Carbonell G, Tarazona JV (2005) Toxicity of the antimicrobial oxytetracycline to soil organisms in a multi-species-soil system (MS·3) and influence of manure co-addition. J Hazard Mater 122:233–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cai QY, Mo C, Wu QT, Zeng QY, Katsoyiannis A (2007) Concentration and speciation of heavy metals in six different sewage sludge-composts. J Hazard Mater 147:1063–1072CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen WR, Huang CH (2009) Transformation of tetracyclines mediated by Mn(II) and Cu(II) ions in the presence of oxygen. Environ Sci Technol 43:401–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen ZX, Gu J, Gao H, Wang XJ, Chen L, Hu T (2013) Effect of oxytetraeyeline (OTC) on the activities of enzyme and microbial community metabolic profiles in composting. Acta Ecol Sinica 33:6957–6966CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Espinoza-Quiñones FR, Módenes AN, de Oliveira AP, Trigueros DE (2013) Influence of lead-doped hydroponic medium on the adsorption/bioaccumulation processes of lead and phosphorus in roots and leaves of the aquatic macrophyte Eicchornia crassipes. J Environ Manag 130:199–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fang M, Wong JWC (1999) Effects of lime amendment on availability of heavy metals and maturation in sewage sludge composting. Environ Pollut 106:83–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gao MC, Liang FY, Yu A, Li B, Yang LJ (2010) Evaluation of stability and maturity during forced-aeration composting of chicken manure and sawdust at different C/N ratios. Chemosphere 78:614–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Garland JL (1997) Analysis and interpretation of community-level physiological profiles in microbial ecology. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 24:289–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Guo R, Li G, Jiang T, Schuchardt F, Chen T, Zhao Y, Shen Y (2012) Effect of aeration rate, C/N ratio and moisture content on the stability and maturity of compost. Bioresour Technol 112:171–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hölzel CS, Müller C, Harms KS, Mikolajewski S, Schäfer S, Schwaiger K, Bauer J (2012) Heavy metals in liquid pig manure in light of bacterial antimicrobial resistance. Environ Res 113:21–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hu ZH, Liu YL, Chen GW, Gui XY, Chen TH, Zhan XM (2011) Characterization of organic matter degradation during composting of manure–straw mixtures spiked with tetracyclines. Bioresour Technol 102:7329–7334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jia MY, Wang F, Bian YR, Jin X, Song Y, Kengara FO, Xu RK, Jiang X (2013) Effects of pH and metal ions on oxytetracycline sorption to maize-straw-derived biochar. Bioresour Technol 136:87–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kalamdhad AS, Singh YK, Ali M, Khwairakpam M, Kazmi AA (2009) Rotary drum composting of vegetable waste and tree leaves. Bioresour Technol 100:6442–6450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Koivula N, Räikkönen T, Urpilainen S, Ranta J, Hänninen K (2004) Ash in composting of source-separated catering waste. Bioresour Technol 93:291–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kong WD, Zhu YG, Fu BJ, Marschner P, He JZ (2006) The veterinary antibioticoxytetracycline and Cu influence functional diversity of the soil microbial com-munity. Environ Pollut 143:129–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lazzari L, Sperni L, Bertin P, Pavonia B (2000) Correlation between inorganic (heavy metals) and organic (PCBs and PAHs) micropollutant concentrations during sewage sludge composting processes. Chemosphere 41:427–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Li YX, Liu B, Zhang XL, Gao M, Wang J (2015) Effects of Cu exposure on enzyme activities and selection for microbial tolerances during swine-manure composting. J Hazard Mater 283:512–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lu D, Wang L, Yan B, Ou Y, Guan J, Bian Y, Zhang Y (2014a) Speciation of Cu and Zn during composting of pig manure amended with rock phosphate. Waste Manag 34:1529–1536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lu X, Gao Y, Luo J, Yan SH, Rengel Z, Zhang ZH (2014b) Interaction of veterinary antibiotic tetracyclines and copper on their fates in water and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). J Hazard Mater 280:389–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Martínez-Carballo E, González-Barreiro C, Scharf S, Gans O (2007) Environmental monitoring study of selected veterinary antibiotics in animal manure and soils in Austria. Environ Pollut 148:570–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Michel FC, Forney LJ, Huang AJ, Drew S, Czuprenski M, Lindeneg JD, Reddy CA (1996) Effects of turning frequency, leaves to grass ratio and windrow vs pile configuration on composting of yard trimmings. Compost Sci Util 4:26–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mossop KF, Davidson CM (2003) Comparison of original and modified BCR sequential extraction procedures for the fractionation of copper, iron, lead, manganese and zinc in soils and sediments. Anal Chim Acta 478:111–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rodríguez-Vila A, Asensio V, Forján R, Covelo EF (2015) Chemical fractionation of Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in a mine soil amended with compost and biochar and vegetated with Brassica juncea L. J Geochem Explor 158:74–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Selvam A, Zhao ZY, Wong JWC (2012) Composting of swine manure spiked with sulfadiazine, chlortetracycline and ciprofloxacin. Bioresour Technol 126:412–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Singh J, Kalamdhad AS (2012) Concentration and speciation of heavy metals during water hyacinth composting. Bioresour Technol 124:169–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Singh J, Kalamdhad AS (2013) Assessment of bioavailability and leachability of heavy metals during rotary drum composting of green waste (water hyacinth). Ecol Eng 52:59–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Singh J, Kalamdhad AS (2016) Effect of lime on speciation of heavy metals during composting of water hyacinth. Front Environ Sci Eng 10(1):93–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Singh WR, Pankaj SK, Kalamdhad AS (2015) Reduction of bioavailability and leachability of heavy metals during agitated pile composting of Salvinia natans weed of Loktak lake. Int J Recycl Org Waste Agricult 4:143–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Smieja-Król B, Fiałkiewicz-Kozieł B, Sikorski J, Palowski B (2010) Heavy metal behaviour in peat – a mineralogical perspective. Sci Total Environ 408:5924–5931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Smolyakov BS (2012) Uptake of Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd by water hyacinth in the initial stage of water system remediation. Appl Geochem 27:1214–1219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Strong WL (2016) Biased richness and evenness relationships within Shannon–wiener index values. Ecol Indic 67:703–713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tica D, Udovic M, Lestan D (2011) Immobilization of potentially toxic metals using different soil amendments. Chemosphere 85:577–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Venkateswaran P, Vellaichamy S, Palanivelu K (2007) Speciation of heavy metals in electroplating industry sludge and wastewater residue using inductively coupled plasma. Int J Environ Sci Technol 4(4):497–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wei RC, Ge F, Huang SY, Chen M, Wang R (2011) Occurrence of veterinary antibiotics in animal wastewater and surface water around farms in Jiangsu Province, China. Chemosphere 82:1408–1414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wen B, Huang RX, Wang P, Zhou YP, Shan XQ, Zhang SZ (2011) Effect of complexation on the accumulation and elimination kinetics of cadmium and ciprofloxacin in the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Environ Sci Technol 45:4339–4345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wong JWC, Selvam A (2006) Speciation of heavy metals during co-composting of sewage sludge with lime. Chemosphere 63:980–986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wu SH, Shen ZQ, Yang CP, Zhou YX, Li X, Zeng GM, Ai SJ, He HJ (2017) Effects of C/N ratio and bulking agent on speciation of Zn and Cu and enzymatic activity during pig manure composting. Int Biodeter Biodegr 119:429–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zak JC, Willig MR, Moorhead DL, Wildman HG (1994) Functional diversity of microbial communities: a quantitative approach. Soil Biol Biochem 26:1101–1108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zhang Y, Cai XY, Lang XM, Qiao XL, Li XH, Chen JW (2012) Insights into aquatic oxicities of the antibiotics oxytetracycline and ciprofloxacin in the presence of metal: complexation versus mixture. Environ Pollut 166:48–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zhao YP, Geng JJ, Wang XR, Gu XY, Gao SX (2011) Adsorption of tetracycline onto goethite in the presence of metal cations and humic substances. J Colloid Interf Sci 361:247–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zhou DM, Hao XZ, Wang YJ, Dong YH, Cang L (2005) Copper and Zn uptake by radish and pakchoi as affected by application of livestock and poultry manures. Chemosphere 59:167–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xin Lu
    • 1
  • Lizhu Liu
    • 1
  • Ruqin Fan
    • 1
  • Jia Luo
    • 1
  • Shaohua Yan
    • 1
  • Zed Rengel
    • 2
  • Zhenhua Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Agricultural Resources and EnvironmentJiangsu Academy of Agricultural SciencesNanjingChina
  2. 2.School of Agriculture and EnvironmentThe University of Western AustraliaPerthAustralia

Personalised recommendations