The herbicides trifluralin and tebuthiuron have no genotoxic or mutagenic potential as evidenced by genetic tests
Brazil has been the largest world consumer of pesticides since 2008, followed by the USA. The herbicides trifluralin and tebuthiuron have been widely applied in agriculture. These herbicides are selective for some plant species, and their use brings various benefits. However, the genotoxic and mutagenic effects of tebuthiuron on non-target organisms are poorly known, and in addition, the effects of trifluralin must be better investigated. Therefore, this study employed genetic tests including the comet assay and micronucleus test to evaluate the genotoxic effects of trifluralin and tebuthiuron on HepG2 cells. In addition, we have used the Ames test to assess the mutagenic effects of the herbicides on the TA97a, TA98, TA100, and TA1535 strains of Salmonella typhimurium. On the basis of the comet assay and the micronucleus test, trifluralin did not cause genetic damage to HepG2 cells. In addition, trifluralin did not impact the tested S. typhimurium strains. Regarding tebuthiuron, literature has shown that this herbicide damaged DNA in Oreochromis niloticus. Nevertheless, we have found that tebuthiuron was not genotoxic to either HepG2 cells or the S. typhimurium strains. Therefore, neither trifluralin nor tebuthiuron exerted genotoxic or mutagenic potential at the tested conditions.
KeywordsComet assay Micronucleus Ames test HepG2 Salmonella typhimurium
The opinions, assumptions, and conclusions expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of FAPESP.
Also, the authors wish to thank the Environmental Agency of São Paulo (Companhia Ambiental do Estado de São Paulo – CETESB) for providing the Salmonella strains. This article does not necessarily reflect the view of CETESB and no official endorsement should be inferred.
- Albanis TA, Hela DG, Sakellarides TM, Konstantinou IK (1998) Monitoring of pesticide residues and their metabolites in surface and underground waters of Imathia (N. Greece) by means of solid-phase extraction disks and gas chromatography. J Chromatogr A 823(1):59–71. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(98)00304-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- ANVISA. Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (2013) Programa de Análise de Resíduos de Agrotóxicos em Alimentos (PARA). Relatório de Atividades de 2011 e 2012. http://portal.anvisa.gov.br/documents/111215/117818/Resultado%2B2011-2012_30-10-13.pdf/1b4b6aba-d663-431c-b230-6caa570792a0. Accessed 10 May 2017
- Dores EF, Navickiene S, Cunha ML, Carbo L, Ribeiro ML, De-Lamonica-Freire EM (2006) Multiresidue determination of herbicides in environmental waters from primavera do Leste region (middle west of Brazil) by SPE-GC-NPD. J Braz Chem Soc 17(5):866–873. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-50532006000500008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- EPA. Environmental Protection Agency (1994) Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Tebuthiuron. https://www3.epa.gov/pesticides/chem_search/reg_actions/reregistration/red_PC-105501_15-Jun-94.pdf. Accessed 06 May 2017
- EPA. Environmental Protection Agency (1996) Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) Trifluralin. https://www3.epa.gov/pesticides/chem_search/reg_actions/reregistration/red_PC-036101_1-Apr-96.pdf. Accessed 06 May 2017
- EPA. Environmental Protection Agency (2017) Pesticides industry. Sales and usage 2008–2012 market estimates. https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2017-01/documents/pesticides-industry-sales-usage-2016_0.pdf. Accessed 09 May 2017
- European Comission (2002) Pesticide Database. Tebuthiuron. http://ec.europa.eu/food/plant/pesticides/eu-pesticides-database/public/?event=activesubstance.detail&language=EN&selectedID=1915. Accessed 09 May 2017
- European Comission (2009) Pesticide Database. Trifluralin. http://ec.europa.eu/food/plant/pesticides/eu-pesticides-database/public/?event=activesubstance.detail&language=EN&selectedID=1994. Accessed 08 May 2017
- Franco-Bernardes MF, Maschio LR, Azeredo-Oliveira MTV, Almeida EA (2014) Biochemical and genotoxic effects of a commercial formulation of the herbicide tebuthiuron in Oreochromis niloticus of different sizes. Ecotoxicol Environ Contam 9(1):59–67. https://doi.org/10.5132/eec.2014.01.008 Google Scholar
- Franco-Bernardes MF, Pazin M, Pereira LC, Dorta DJ (2015) Impact of pesticides on environmental and human health. In: Andreazza AC, Scola G (Eds).Toxicology studies—cells, drugs and environment. In tech. doi: https://doi.org/10.5772/59710
- IARC, International Agency on Cancer Research (1991) Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Trifluralin 53:515–534Google Scholar
- IBAMA. Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis (2017) Relatórios de comercialização de agrotóxicos. http://www.ibama.gov.br/relatorios/substancias-quimicas/relatorios-de-comercializacao-de-agrotoxicos#boletinsanuais. Accessed 10 May 2017
- OECD. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (1997) Guideline for the testing of chemicals. Bacterial Reverse Mutation Test. July 471, 1997. http://www.oecd.org/chemicalsafety/risk-assessment/1948418.pdf. Accessed 05 May 2017
- Pilinskaia MA (1987) Evaluation of the cytogenetic effect of the herbicide treflan and of a number of its metabolites on mammalian somatic cells. Tsit Genet 21:131–135Google Scholar
- Rawn DFK, Halldorson THJ, Woychuck RN, Muir DCG (1999) Pesticides in the Red River and its tributaries in southern Manitoba, 1993-95. Water Qual Res J Can 34(2):183–219 http://digital.Library.Mcgill.Ca/WQRJ/pdfs/WQRJ_Vol_34_No_2_Art_01.Pdf. Accessed 28 june 2016Google Scholar
- WAP. World Agricultural Pesticides (2014) Industry market research for business leaders, strategists, decision makers, 399-411. The Freedonia Group, Inc. 767 Beta Drive. Cleveland, OH, pp 44143–2326Google Scholar