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Comparison of heavy metal levels of farmed and escaped farmed rainbow trout and health risk assessment associated with their consumption

Abstract

In this study, levels of ten metals (arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, and zinc) in muscles of farmed and escaped farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Keban Dam Reservoir (Turkey) were determined. Also, human health risks associated with their consumption were assessed. Of ten metals, only Co and Fe levels in escaped rainbow trout were significantly higher than those in farmed rainbow trout. The metal levels in farmed and escaped rainbow trout were below the maximum permissible limits. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of each metal in both farmed and escaped farmed rainbow trout was much lower than the respective tolerable daily intake (TDI). The target hazard quotient (THQ) values for individual metal and the total THQ values for combined metals were lower than 1 in both farmed and escaped rainbow trout, indicating no health risk for humans. The cancer risk (CR) values estimated for inorganic As in both farmed and escaped rainbow trout indicated low carcinogenic risk to the consumers. According to the maximum allowable monthly consumption limits (CRmm), adults may safely consume 24 meals of farmed rainbow trout per month or 39 meals of escaped rainbow trout per month, with minimal adverse carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health effects. This study revealed that the risk from consuming farmed and escaped farmed rainbow trout in the Keban Dam Reservoir due to these trace elements is minimal.

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Acknowledgements

The study was supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) (Project No: 114Y018). Special thanks are given to the anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments for improving the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Memet Varol.

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Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues

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Varol, M., Sünbül, M.R. Comparison of heavy metal levels of farmed and escaped farmed rainbow trout and health risk assessment associated with their consumption. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24, 23114–23124 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-9958-5

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Keywords

  • Rainbow trout
  • Metals
  • Health risk assessment
  • Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects
  • Fish consumption advisories