Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, Volume 24, Issue 27, pp 21530–21547 | Cite as

Microplastic pollution, a threat to marine ecosystem and human health: a short review

Review Article

Abstract

Human populations are using oceans as their household dustbins, and microplastic is one of the components which are not only polluting shorelines but also freshwater bodies globally. Microplastics are generally referred to particles with a size lower than 5 mm. These microplastics are tiny plastic granules and used as scrubbers in cosmetics, hand cleansers, air-blasting. These contaminants are omnipresent within almost all marine environments at present. The durability of plastics makes it highly resistant to degradation and through indiscriminate disposal they enter in the aquatic environment. Today, it is an issue of increasing scientific concern because these microparticles due to their small size are easily accessible to a wide range of aquatic organisms and ultimately transferred along food web. The chronic biological effects in marine organisms results due to accumulation of microplastics in their cells and tissues. The potential hazardous effects on humans by alternate ingestion of microparticles can cause alteration in chromosomes which lead to infertility, obesity, and cancer. Because of the recent threat of microplastics to marine biota as well as on human health, it is important to control excessive use of plastic additives and to introduce certain legislations and policies to regulate the sources of plastic litter. By setup various plastic recycling process or promoting plastic awareness programmes through different social and information media, we will be able to clean our sea dustbin in future.

Keywords

Microplastic Microbeads Marine biota Food web Harmful effects Environmental policies 

Notes

Acknowledgments

SS, gratefully acknowledge SERB-DST, Govt. of India for the financial support (PDF/2016/000818). Authors thank Dr. Shubhra Majumder, CCC, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH for carefully reading the manuscript.

Supplementary material

11356_2017_9910_Fig7_ESM.gif (227 kb)
Figure S1

A size-based definition, examples and composition of plastics and group of marine animals affected by plastic litter (GIF 226 kb)

11356_2017_9910_MOESM1_ESM.tif (106 kb)
High resolution image (TIFF 105 kb)

References

  1. Acha E, Hermes W, Mianzan A, Iribarne C, Domingo A, Gagliardini C, Carlos Lasta A, Pedro Daleo D (2003) The role of the Rio de la Plata bottom salinity front in accumulating debris. Mar Pollut Bull 46:197–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrady AL, Neal MA (2009) Applications and societal benefits of plastics. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 364:1977–1984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anthony L, Andrady (2011) Microplastics in the marine environment. Mar Pollut Bull 62:1596–1605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arthur C, Baker J, Bamford H (2009) Proceedings of the international research workshop on the occurrence, effects and fate of micro-plastic marine debris, Sept 9-11, 2008. NOAA technical memorandum NOS-OR&R-30Google Scholar
  5. Azzarello MY, Vleet ES (1987) Marine birds and plastic pollution. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 37:295–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barnes DKA, Galgani F, Thompson RC, Barlaz M (2009) Accumulation and fragmentation of plastic debris in global environments. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 364:1985–1998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barnes DKA, Walters A, Gonçalves L (2010) Macroplastics at sea around Antarctica. Mar Environ Res 70:250–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barnette MC (2001) A review of the fishing gear utilized within the southeast region and their potential impacts on essential fish habitat. US Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service, Southeast Regional Office NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-449Google Scholar
  9. Beach WJ (1972) Skin cleaner. Inventor; Sugar Beet Products Co, assignee. United States patent No. US 3,645,904. 29 Feb 1972Google Scholar
  10. Benton TG (1995) From castaways to throwaways: marine litter in the Pitcairn Islands. Biol J Linn Soc 56:415–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bergmann M, Klages M (2012) Increase of litter at the Arctic deep-sea observatory Hausgarten. Mar Pollut Bull 64:2734–2741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Besseling E, Wegner A, Foekema EM, van den Heuvel-Greve MJ, Koelmans AA (2013) Effects of microplastic on fitness and PCB bioaccumulation by the lugworm Arenicola marina (L.) Environ Sci Technol 47:593–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Betts K (2008) Why small plastic particles may pose a big problem in the oceans. Environ Sci Technol 42:8995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. BfR (2015) Microplastic Particles in Food. BfR Opinion No. 013/2015 of 30 April 2015. English summary of the report Mikroplastikpartikel in Lebensmitteln, Stellungnahme Nr. 013/2015 des BfR vom 30. April 2015. German Federal Institute for Risk AssessmentGoogle Scholar
  15. Blight LK, Burger AE (1997) Occurrence of plastic particles in seabirds from the eastern North Pacific. Mar Pollut Bull 34:323–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Boerger CM, Lattin GL, Moore S, Moore CJ (2010) Plastic ingestion by planktivorous fishes in the North Pacific Central Gyre. Mar Pollut Bull 60:2275–2778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bravo Rebolledo EL, van Franeker JA, Jansen OE, Brasseur SM (2013) Plastic ingestion by harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in The Netherlands. Mar Pollut Bull 67:200–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Browne MA, Galloway T, Thompson R (2007) Microplastic—an emerging contaminant of potential concern? Integr Environ Assess Manag 3:559–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Browne MA, Dissanayake A, Galloway TS, Lowe DM, Thompson RC (2008) Ingested microscopic plastic translocates to the circulatory system of the mussel, Mytilus edulis. Environ Sci Technol 42:5026–5031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Browne J, Harper J, Humphrey N (2010) Cirque glacier sensitivity to 21st century warming: Sperry Glacier, Rocky Mountains, USA. Glob Planet Chang. doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2010.09.001
  21. Browne MA, Crump P, Niven SJ, Teuten E, Tonkin A, Galloway TS, Thompson RC (2011) Accumulation of microplastic on shorelines worldwide: sources and sinks. Environ Sci Technol 45:9175–9179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Browne MA, Underwood AJ, Chapman MG, Williams R, Thompson RC, van Franeker JA (2015) Linking effects of anthropogenic debris to ecological impacts. Proc Biol Sci 282:2929–2935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Campbell RG, Teegarden GJ, Cembella AD, Durbin EG (2005) Zooplankton grazing impacts on Alexandrium spp. in the nearshore environment of the Gulf of Maine. Deep-Sea Res 52:2817–2833Google Scholar
  24. Carman VG, Acha EM, Maxwell SM, Albareda D, Campagna C, Mianzan H (2014) Young green turtles, Chelonia mydas, exposed to plastic in a frontal area of the SW Atlantic. Mar Pollut Bull 78:56–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Carpenter EJ, Smith K (1972) Plastics on the Sargasso Sea surface. Science 175:1240–1241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Carr SA, Liu J, Tesoro AG (2016) Transport and fate of microplastic particles in wastewater treatment plants. Water Res 91:174–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Carvalho DG, Neto JAB (2016) Microplastic pollution of the beaches of Guanabara Bay, Southeast Brazil. Ocean Coast Manag 128:10–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cauwenberghe LV, Devriese L, Galgani F, Robbens J, Janssen CR (2015) Microplastics in sediments: a review of techniques, occurrence and effects. Mar Environ Res 111:5–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Choy CA, Drazen JC (2013) Plastic for dinner? Observations of frequent debris ingestion by pelagic predatory fishes from the central North Pacific. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 485:155–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Claessens M, De Meester S, Van Landuyt L, De Clerck K, Janssed RC (2011) Occurence and distribution of microplastics in marine sediments along the Belgian coast. Mar Pollut Bull 62:2199–2204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Claessens M, Van Cauwenberghe L, Vandegehuchte MB, Janssen CR (2013) New techniques for the detection of microplastics in sediments and field collected organisms. Mar Pollut Bull 70:227–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cole M, Lindeque P, Fileman E, Halsban C, Goodhead R, Moger J, Galloway TS (2013) Microplastic ingestion by zooplankton. Environ Sci Technol 47:6646–6655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cole M, Lindeque P, Halsband C, Galloway TS (2011) Microplastics as contaminants in the marine environment: a review. Mar Pollut Bull 62:2588–2597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Copeland C (2015) Microbeads: an emerging water quality issue. Retrieved from https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/IN10319
  35. Corcoran PL, Beisinger MC, Grifi M (2009) Plastic and beaches: a degrading relationship. Mar Pollut Bull 58:80–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Costa JP, Santos PSM, Duarte AC, Rocha-Santos T (2016) (Nano) plastics in the environment—sources, fates and effects. Sci Total Environ 567:15–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cozar A, Echevarria F, González-Gordillo JI, Irigoien X, Ubeda B, Hernandez-Leon S, Palma AT, Navarro S, Garcia-de-Lomas J, Ruiz A, Fernandez-depuelles ML, Duarte CM (2014) Plastic debris in the open ocean. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111:10239–10244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Da Silva Mendes S, de Carvalho RH, de Faria AF, de Sousa BM (2015) Marine debris ingestion by Chelonia mydas (Testudines: Cheloniidae) on the Brazilian coast. Mar Pollut Bull 92:8–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Debrot AO, Tiel AB, Bradshaw JE (1999) Beach debris in Curaçao. Mar Pollut Bull 38:795–801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Denuncio P, Bastida R, Dassis M, Giardino G, Gerpe M, Rodriguez D (2011) Plastic ingestion plastic ingestion in Franciscana dolphins, Pontoporia blainvillei from Argentina. Mar Pollut Bull 62:1836–1841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Derraik JGB (2002) The pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris: a review. Mar Pollut Bull 44:842–852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Desforges JPW, Galbraith M, Dangerfield N, Ross PS (2014) Widespread distribution of microplastics in subsurface seawater in the NE Pacific ocean. Mar Pollut Bull 79:94–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Desforges JPW, Galbraith M, Ross PS (2015) Ingestion of microplastics by zooplankton in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 69:320–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Devriese L, Vandendriessche S, Theetaert H, Vandermeersch G, Hostens K, Robbens J (2014) Occurrence of synthetic fibres in brown shrimp on the Belgian part of the North Sea. Platform presentation. International workshop on fate and impact of microplastics in marine ecosystems (MICRO2014) Plouzane, France, 13-15 January 2014Google Scholar
  45. Dos Santos J, Jobling M (1992) A model to describe gastric evacuation in cod (Gadus morhua L.) fed natural prey. ICES J Mar Sci 49:145–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Duis K, Coors A (2016) Microplastics in the aquatic and terrestrial environment: sources (with a specific focus on personal care products), fate and effects. Environ Sci Eur 28:1–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Eriksen M, Laurent CML, Henry SC, Thiel M, Moore CJ, Borerro JC, Galgani F, Ryan PG, Reisser J (2014) Plastic pollution in the World’s oceans: more than 5 trillion plastic pieces weighing over 250,000 tons afloat at sea. PLoS One. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0111913
  48. Eriksen M, Maximenko N, Thiel M, Cummins A, Lattin G, Wilson S, Hafner J, Zellers A, Rifman S (2013b) Plastic pollution in the South Pacific subtropical gyre. Mar Pollut Bull 68:71–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Eriksen M, Mason S, Wilson S, Box C, Zellers A, Edwards W, Farley H, Amato S (2013a) Microplastic pollution in the surface waters of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Mar Pollut Bull 77:177–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. EU Commision (2011) In: Commision E (ed) Plastic waste: ecological and human health impacts. Science for Environment Policy, EuropeGoogle Scholar
  51. Fendall LS, Sewell MA (2009) Contributing to marine pollution by washing your face: microplastics in facial cleansers. Mar Pollut Bull 58:1225–1228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ferrier-Pages C, Witting J, Tambutte E, Sebens KP (2003) Effect of natural zooplankton feeding on the tissue and skeletal growth of the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. Coral Reefs 22:229–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Foekema EM, de Gruitjer C, Mergia MT, van Franeker JA, Murk AT, Koelmans AA (2013) Plastic in North Sea fish. Environ Sci Technol 47:8818–8824CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Fok L, Cheung PK (2015) Hong Kong at the Pearl River estuary: a hotspot of microplastic pollution. Mar Pollut Bull 99:112–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Fossi MC, Panti C, Guerranti C, Coppola D, Giannetti M, Marsili L, Minutoli R (2012) Are baleen whales exposed to the threat of microplastics? A case study of the Mediterranean fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus). Mar Pollut Bull 64:2374–2379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Frias JPGL, Otero V, Sobral P (2014) Evidence of microplastics in samples of zooplankton from Portuguese coastal waters. Mar Environ Res 95:89–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Frost BW (1977) Feeding behavior of Calanus pacificus in mixtures of food particles. Limnol Oceanogr 22:472–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Galgani F et al (2000) Litter on the sea floor along European coasts. Mar Pollut Bull 40:516–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. GESAMP (2015). Sources, fate and effects of microplastics in the marine environment: a global assessment. In: Kershaw PJ (ed) (IMO/FAO/UNESCO-IOC/UNIDO/WMO/IAEA/UN/UNEP/UNDP Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection). Rep Stud GESAMP No. 90, pp 96Google Scholar
  60. Goldstein M, Goodwin D (2013) Gooseneck barnacles (Lepas spp.) ingest microplastic debris in the North Pacific subtropical gyre. Peer J. doi: 10.7717/peerj.184
  61. Goldstein MC, Rosenberg M, Cheng L (2012) Increased oceanic microplastic debris enhances oviposition in an endemic pelagic insect. Biol Lett 8:817–820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Goldsworthy SD, Hindell MA, Crowley HM (1997) Diet and diving behaviour of sympatric fur seals Arctocephalus gazella and A. tropicalis at Macquarie Island. In: Hindell M, Kemper C (eds) Marine mammal research in the Southern Hemisphere, Status, ecology and medicine, vol vol. 1. Surrey Beatty & Sons, New South Wales, Australia, pp 151–163Google Scholar
  63. Gregory MR (1978) Accumulation and distribution of virgin plastic granules on New Zealand beaches. N Z J Mar Freshwater Res 12:399–414Google Scholar
  64. Gregory MR (1996) Plastic ‘scrubbers’ in hand cleansers: a further (and minor) source for marine pollution identified. Mar Pollut Bull 32:867–871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Gregory MR (1999) Plastics and South Pacific Island shores: environmental implications. Ocean Coast Manag 42:603–615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Gregory MR (2009) Environmental implications of plastic debris in marine settings: entanglement, ingestion, smothering, hangers-on, hitch-hiking and alien invasions. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 364:2013–2025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hall NM, Berry KLE, Rintoul L, Hoogenboom MO (2015) Microplastic ingestion by scleractinian corals. Mar Biol. doi: 10.1007/s00227-015-2619-7
  68. Hart MW (1991) Particle captures and the method of suspension feeding by echinoderm larvae. Biol Bull 180:12–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hidalgo-Ruz V, Thiel M (2013) Distribution and abundance of small plastic debris on beaches in the SE Pacific (Chile): a study supported by a citizen science project. Mar Environ Res 88:12–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Ivar do Sul JA, Spengler A, Costa MF (2009) Here, there and everywhere. Small plastic fragments and pellets on beaches of Fernando de Noronha (Equatorial Western Atlantic). Mar Pollut Bull 58:1229–1244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Jayasiri HB, Purushothaman CS, Vennila A (2013) Quantitative analysis of plastic debris on recreational beaches in Mumbai, India. Mar Pollut Bull 77:107–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Jegou AM, Salomon JC (1991) Couplage imagerie thermique satellitaire-modeles numeriques. application a la manche. Oceanol Acta 91:55–61Google Scholar
  73. Kaiser J (2010) The dirt on ocean garbage patches. Science 328:1506. doi: 10.1126/science.328.5985.1506 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kanehiro H, Tokai T, Matuda K (1995) Marine litter composition and distribution on the sea-bed of Tokyo Bay. Fish Eng 31:195–199Google Scholar
  75. Koutsodendris A, Papatheodorou G, Kougiourouki O, Georgiadis M (2008) Benthic marine litter in four gulfs in Greece, Eastern Mediterranean: abundance, composition and source identification. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 77:501–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kripa V, Nair PG, Dhanya AM, Pravitha VP, Abhilash KS, Mohammed AA, Vijayan D, Vishnu PG, Mohan G, Kumar PS, Khambadker LR, Prema D (2014) Microplastics in the gut of anchovies caught from the mud bank area of Alappuzha, Kerala. Mar Fish Inf Serv Tech Ext Ser 219:27–28Google Scholar
  77. Kuhn S, van Franeker JA (2012) Plastic ingestion by the northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) in Iceland. Mar Pollut Bull 64:1252–1254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Laist DW (1987) Overview of the biological effects of lost and discarded plastic debris in the marine environment. Mar Pollut Bull 18:319–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lassen C, Hansen SF, Magnusson K, Noren F, Hartmann NIB, Jensen PR, Nielsen TG, Brinch A (2015) Microplastics: occurrence, effects and sources of releases to the environment in Denmark. The Danish Environmental Protection Agency. http://www.eng.mst.dk/
  80. Law KL, Morèt-Ferguson S, Maximenko N, Proskurowski G, Peacock EE, Hafner J, Reddy CM (2010) Plastic accumulation in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. Science 329:1185–1888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lazar B, Gracan R (2011) Ingestion of marine debris by loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, in the Adriatic Sea. Mar Pollut Bull 62:43–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Lebreton LCM, Greer SD, Borrero JC (2012) Numerical modeling of floating debris in the world’s oceans. Mar Pollut Bull 64:653–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Lechner A, Keckeis H, Lumesberger-Loisl F, Zens B, Krusch R, Tritthart M et al (2014) The Danube so colourful: a potpourri of plastic litter outnumbers fish larvae in Europe's second largest river. Environ Pollut 188:177–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Lee D, Hyeon-Seo C, Sun-Beom J (2006) Distribution characteristics of marine litter on the sea bed of the East China Sea and the South Sea of Korea. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 70:187–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Lee J, Hong S, Song YK, Jang YC, Jiang M, Heo NW, Han GM, Kang D, Shim WJ (2013) Relationships among the abundances of plastic debris in different size, classes on beaches in South Korea. Mar Pollut Bull 77:349–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Li WC, Tse HF, Fok L (2016) Plastic waste in the marine environment: a review of sources, occurrence and effects. Sci Total Environ 566:333–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Liebezeit G, Liebezeit E (2014) Synthetic particles as contaminants in German beers. Food Addit Contam Part A 31:1574–1578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Lima ARA, Costa MF, Barletta M (2014) Distribution patterns of microplastics within the plankton of a tropical estuary. Environ Res 132:146–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Lindborg VA, Ledbetter JF, Walat JM, Moffett C (2012) Plastic consumption and diet of glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens). Mar Pollut Bull 64:2351–2356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Lusher A, Milian GH, O’Brien J, Berrow S, O’Connor I, Officer R (2015) Microplastic and macroplastic ingestion by a deep diving, oceanic cetacean: the True’s beaked whale Mesoplodon Mirus. Environ Pollut 199:85–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Lusher AL, McHugh M, Thompson RC (2013) Occurrence of microplastics in the gastrointestinal tract of pelagic and demersal fish from the English Channel. Mar Pollut Bull 67:94–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Magnusson K, Eliasson K, Frane A, Haikonen K, Hulten J, Olshammar M, Stadmark J, Voisin A (2016) Swedish sources and pathways for microplastics to the marine environment. A review of existing data. IVL, C 183Google Scholar
  93. Martins J, Sobral P (2011) Plastic marine debris on the Portuguese coastline: a matter of size? Mar Pollut Bull 62:2649–2653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Mato Y, Isobe T, Takada H, Kanehiro H, Ohtake C, Kaminuma T (2001) Plastic resin pellets as a transport medium for toxic chemicals in the marine environment. Environ Sci Technol 35:318–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. McCauley SJ, Bjorndal KA (1999) Conservation implications of dietary dilution from debris ingestion: sublethal effects in post hatchling loggerhead sea turtles. Conserv Biol 13:925–929CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. McDermid KJ, McMullen TL (2004) Quantitative analysis of small-plastic debris on beaches in the Hawaiian archipelago. Mar Pollut Bull 48:790–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. McMahon CR, Hooley D, Robinson S (1999) The diet of itinerant male Hooker’s sea lions, Phocarctos hookeri, at sub-Antarctic Macquarie Island. Wildl Res 26:839–846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Mons MN, van Egmond HP, Speijers GJA (1998) Paralytic shellfish poisoning: a review. RIVM Report 388802 005Google Scholar
  99. Moore CJ (2008) Synthetic polymers in the marine environment: a rapidly increasing, long-term threat. Environ Res 108:131–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Moore CJ, Moore SL, Leecaster MK, Weisberg SB (2001) A comparison of plastic and plankton in the North Pacific central gyre. Mar Pollut Bull 42:1297–1300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Moore CJ, Moore SL, Weisberg SB, Lattin GL, Zellers AF (2002) A comparison of neustonic plastic and zooplankton abundance in southern California’s coastal waters. Mar Pollut Bull 44:1035–1038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Murray F, Cowie PR (2011) Plastic contamination in the decapod crustacean Nephrops norvegicus. Mar Pollut Bull 62:1207–1217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Nerland IL, Halsband C, Allan I, Thomas KV (2014) Microplastics in marine environments: occurrence, distribution and effects project no. 14338 report no. 6754-2014 OsloGoogle Scholar
  104. Ng KL, Obbard JP (2006) Prevalence of microplastics in Singapore’s coastal marine environment. Mar Pollut Bull 52:761–767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Noren F, Naustvoll F (2010) Survey of microscopic anthropogenic particles in Skagerrak. Report commissioned by Klimaog Forurensningsdirektoratet Oslo, NorwayGoogle Scholar
  106. Obbard RW, Sadri S, Wong YQ, Khitun AA, Baker I, Thompson RC (2014) Global warming releases microplastic legacy frozen in Arctic Sea ice. Earth’s Future. doi: 10.1002/2014EF000240
  107. Pallone FHR (2015) Microbead-Free Waters Act of 2015, Public Law No. 114-114. https://www.congress.gov/bill/114th-congress/house-bill/1321. Accessed on 14 Aug 2017
  108. Parker DM, Cooke WJ, Balazs GH (2005) Diet of oceanic loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the central North Pacific. Fish Bull 103:142–152Google Scholar
  109. Perschbacher E (2016) Microbeads—Legislative Update Retrieved from http://www.ijc.org/en_/blog/2016/03/01/microbeads_legislative_update_story4
  110. Pham CK, Ramirez-Llodra E, Alt CHS, Amaro T, Bergmann M, Canals M, Company JB, Davies J, Duineveld G, Galgani F, Howell KL, Huvenne VA, Isidro E, Jones DO, Lastras G, Morato T, Gomes-Pereira JN, Purser A, Stewart H, Tojeira I, Tubau X, Van Rooij D, Tyler PA (2014) Marine litter distribution and density in European seas, from the shelves to deep basins. PLoS One. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095839
  111. Plastic Polution Coalition (2015) The golden state gilds its microbead ban http://www.plasticpollutioncoalition.org/pft/2015/10/8/the-golden-state-gilds-its-microbead-ban. Accessed on 14 Feb 2017
  112. Plastic Polution Coalition (2016a) California defeats big plastic http://www.plasticpollutioncoalition.org/pft/2016/11/9/california-defeats-big-plastic. Accessed on 20 Jan 2017
  113. Plastic Polution Coalition (2016b) California introduces National Trash Reduction act http://www.plasticpollutioncoalition.org/pft/2015/11/6/california-introduces-national-trash-reduction-act. Accessed on 20 Jan 2017
  114. Plastic Polution Coalition (2016c) The first American city to ban plastic bottles http://www.plasticpollutioncoalition.org/pft/2016/2/19/the-first-american-city-to-ban-plastic-water-bottles. Accessed on 22 Jan 2017
  115. Plastic Soup Foundation (2016) Retrieved from http://www.beatthemicrobead.org/en/industry. Accessed on 27 Jan 2017
  116. Plastics Europe (2014) Plastics—the Facts 2014/2015: an analysis of European plastics production, demand and waste data. (Retrieved from) http://issuu.com/plasticseuropeebook/docs/final_plastics_the_facts_2014_19122/1?e=5245759/13757977
  117. Pohlmann AR, FonsecaFN PK, Detoni CB, Coradini K, Beck RC et al (2013) Poly (ε-caprolactone) microcapsules and nanocapsules in drug delivery. Expert Opin Drug Deliv 10:623–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Possatto FE, Barletta M, Costa MF, Ivar do Sul JA, Dantas DV (2011) Plastic debris ingestion by marine catfish: an unexpected fisheries impact. Mar Pollut Bull 62:1098–1102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Ramos JAA, Barletta M, Costa MF (2012) Ingestion of nylon threads by Gerreidae while using a tropical estuary as foraging grounds. Aquat Biol 17:29–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Rands MRW, Adams WM, Bennun L, Butchart SHM, Clements A, Coomes D, Entwistle A, Hodge I, Kapos V, Jr S, Sutherland WJ, Vira B (2010) Biodiversity conservation: challenges beyond. Science 329:1298–1303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Reisser J, Shaw J, Wilcox C, Hardesty BD, Proiett M, Thums M, Pattiaratchi C (2013) Marine plastic pollution in waters around Australia: characteristics, concentrations, and pathways. PLoS One 8. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080466
  122. Reisser J, Slat B, Noble K, du Plessis K, Epp M, Proietti M, de Sonneville J, Becker T, Pattiaratchi C (2015) The vertical distribution of buoyant plastics at sea: an observational study in the North Atlantic gyre. Biogeosciences 12:1249–1256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Revelles M, Cardona L, Aguilar A, Fernandez G (2007) The diet of pelagic loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) off the Balearic archipelago (western Mediterranean): relevance of long-line baits. J Mar Biol Assoc U K 87:805–813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Robards MD, Piatt JF, Wohl KD (1995) Increasing frequency of plastic particles ingested by seabirds in the subarctic North Pacific. Mar Pollut Bull 30:151–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Ryan PG (1987) The incidence and characteristics of plastic particles ingested by seabirds. Mar Environ Res 23:175–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Ryan PG (2008) Seabirds indicate changes in the composition of plastic litter in the Atlantic and south-western Indian Oceans. Mar Pollut Bull 56:1406–1409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Ryan PG, Moore CJ, van Franeker JA, Moloney CL (2009) Monitoring the abundance of plastic debris in the marine environment. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 364:1999–2012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Sadri SS, Thompson RC (2014) On the quantity and composition of floating plastic debris entering and leaving the Tamar estuary, Southwest England. Mar Pollut Bull 81:55–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Slavin C, Grage A, Campbell ML (2012) Linking social drivers of marine debris with actual marine debris on beaches. Mar Pollut Bull 64:1580–1588Google Scholar
  130. Santos RG, Andrades R, Boldrini MA, Martins AS (2015) Debris ingestion by juvenile marine turtles: an underestimated problem. Mar Pollut Bull 93:37–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Setala O, Fleming-Lehtinen V, Lehtiniemi M (2014) Ingestion and transfer of microplastics in the planktonic food web. Environ Pollut 185:77–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Sivan A (2011) New perspectives in plastic biodegradation. Curr Opin Biotechnol 22:422–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Stephens B, Azimi P, El Orch Z, Ramos T (2013) Ultrafine particle emissions from desktop 3D printers. Atmos Environ 79:334–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Sundt P, Schulze P-E, Syversen F (2014) Sources of microplastic-pollution to the marine environment. Report no M-321/2015. Asker: Mepex consultGoogle Scholar
  135. Sutherland WJ, Clout M, Cote IM, Daszak P, Depledge MH, Fellman L, Fleishman E, Garthwaite R, Gibbons DW, De Lurio J, Impey AJ, Lickorish F, Lindenmayer D, Madgwick J, Margerison C, Maynard T, Peck LS, Pretty J, Prior S, Redford KH, Scharlemann JPW, Spalding M, Watkinson AR (2010) A horizon scan of global conservation issues for 2010. Trends Ecol Evol 25:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Tanaka K, Takada H, Yamashita R, Mizukawa K, Fukuwaka MA, Watanuki Y (2013) Accumulation of plastic-derived chemicals in tissues of seabirds ingesting marine plastics. Mar Pollut Bull 69:219–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Teegarden GJ, Cembella AD (1996) Grazing of toxic dinoflagellates, Alexandrium spp., by adult copepods of coastal Maine: implications for the fate of paralytic shellfish toxins in marine food webs. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 196:145–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. The Globe and Mail Newspaper (2016) Government of Canada labels microbeads ‘toxic substance’ https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/feds-label-microbeads-as-toxicsubstance/article30698903/. Accessed 20 Feb 2017
  139. Thompson RC, Olsen Y, Mitchell RP, Davis A, Rowland SJ, John AWG, McGonigle D, Russell AE (2004) Lost at sea: where is all the plastic? Science 304:838–844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Thompson RC (2006) Plastic debris in the marine environment: consequences and solutions. In: Krause JC, Nordheim H, Bräger S (eds) Marine nature conservation in Europe. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Stralsund, pp 107–115Google Scholar
  141. Thompson R, Browne MA, Galloway T (2007) Microplastic e an emerging contaminant of potential concern? Integr Environ Assess Manag 3:559–561Google Scholar
  142. Thompson RC, Moore CJ, vom Saal FS, Swan SH (2009) Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends. Philos Trans R Soc B 364:2153–2216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Tubau X, Canals M, Lastras G, Rayo X, Rivera J, Amblas D (2015) Marine litter on the floor of deep submarine canyons of the northwestern Mediterranean sea: the role of hydrodynamic processes. Prog Oceanogr 134:379–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Tuner A, Holmes L (2011) Occurrence, distribution and characteristics of beached plastic production pellets bon the island of Malta (central Mediterranean). Mar Pollut Bull 62:377–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) (2009) Marine litter: a global challenge. UNEP, Nairobi, p 232Google Scholar
  146. Van A, Rochman CM, Flores EM, Hill KL, Vargas E, Vargas SA (2012) Persistent organic pollutants in plastic marine debris found on beaches in San Diego, California. Chemosphere 86:258–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. van Cauwenberghe L, Janssen CR (2014) Microplastics in bivalves cultured for human consumption. Environ Pollut 193:65–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Van Cauwenberghe L, Vanreusel A, Mees J, Janssen CR (2013) Microplastic pollution in deep-sea sediments. Environ Pollut 182:495–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. van Sebille E, England MH, Froyland G (2012) Origin, dynamics and evolution of ocean garbage patches from observed surface drifters. Environ Res Lett. doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/7/4/044040
  150. Vlietstra LS, Parga JA (2002) Long-term changes in the type, but not amount, of ingested plastic particles in short-tailed shearwaters in the southeastern Bering Sea. Mar Pollut Bull 44:945–955CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Watts AJR, Lewis C, Goodhead RM, Beckett SJ, Moger J, Tyler CR, Galloway TS (2014) Uptake and retention of microplastics by the shore crab Carcinus maenas. Environ Sci Technol 48:8823–8830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Wilson DS (1973) Food size selection among copepods. Ecology 54:909–914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Wirtz KW (2012) Who is eating whom? Morphology and feeding type determine the size relation between planktonic predators and their ideal prey. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 445:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Wright SL, Rowe D, Thompson RC, Galloway TS (2013) Microplastic ingestion decreases energy reserves in marine worms. Curr Biol 23:1031–1033CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Yap H (2012) Coral reef ecosystems. In: Meyers R (ed) Encyclopedia of sustainability science and technology. Springer, New York, pp 2489–2509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Zbyszewski M, Corcoran PL, Hockin A (2014) Comparison of the distribution and degradation of plastic debris along shorelines of the Great Lakes, North America. J Great Lakes Res 40:288–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Zhang H, Kuo YY, Gerecke AC, Wang J (2012) Co-release of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and nano-and microparticles from thermal cutting of polystyrene foams. Environ Sci Technol 46:10990–10996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Zhang Y, Zhang YB, Feng Y, Yang XJ (2010) Reduce the plastic debris: a model research on the great Pacific ocean garbage patch. Adv Mater Res 116:59–63Google Scholar
  159. Zitko V, Hanlon M (1991) Another source of pollution by plastics: skin cleansers with plastic scrubbers. Mar Pollut Bull 22:41–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bioremediation and Metabolomics Research Group, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Sciences, School of Physical and Material SciencesCentral University of Himachal PradeshKangraIndia

Personalised recommendations